The Red Cross in Peace and War

The Red Cross in Peace and War

Clara Barton
Clara Barton

Author: Barton, Clara, 1821-1912
American National Red Cross
Red Cross and Red Crescent
The Red Cross in Peace and War

Transcriber’s Notes

Autograph letters and similar documents which were presented only as images in the original have been transcribed here, and can be found at the end of the text. The captions of those images will serve as links to their transcriptions.
The lists of Illustrations and Contents have several anomalous, though accurate, entries. For example, the section on the re-incorporation of the Red Cross, beginning on page 94, appears in the Contents between sections on p. 184 and p. 197, for no apparent reason. The reference has been placed in its proper position in the Contents. Also, please note that the entries in the Contents do not always refer to formal sections of the text. They sometimes direct one to a change of topic otherwise unmarked in the text itself.
Several of the photographs associated with the Spanish American War, which were included at the end of the volume on pp. 675 and 676, are listed in the Illustrations where their subjects would appear.
Illustrations have been moved to avoid breaking paragraphs. On occasion, they may appear out of the normal page order.
The opening of the section on General History is labeled “Chapter I”, the only use of that designation in the volume.
Footnotes have been consolidated at the end of the volume, and linked for convenient reference.
Please see the Transcriber Notes at the end of the text for more details about the preparation of this text.

From a portrait taken about 1875.


By Clara Barton


Copyright 1898, by Clara Barton

From the President of the United States
In his Message to Congress December 6, 1898.

It is a pleasure for me to mention in terms of cordial appreciation the timely and useful work of the American National Red Cross, both in relief measures preparatory to the campaigns, in sanitary assistance at several of the camps of assemblage, and, later, under the able and experienced leadership of the president of the society, Miss Clara Barton, on the fields of battle and in the hospitals at the front in Cuba. Working in conjunction with the governmental authorities and under their sanction and approval, and with the enthusiastic co-operation of many patriotic women and societies in the various States, the Red Cross has fully maintained its already high reputation for intense earnestness and ability to exercise the noble purposes of its international organization, thus justifying the confidence and support which it has received at the hands of the American people. To the members and officers and all who aided them in their philanthropic work, the sincere and lasting gratitude of the soldiers and the public is due and freely accorded.
In tracing these events we are constantly reminded of our obligations to the Divine Master for His watchful care over us and His safe guidance, for which the nation makes reverent acknowledgment and offers humble prayers for the continuance of His favors.


Clara Barton, from a portrait taken about 1875 Frontispiece.
The International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerland opp. 16
Clara Barton, taken about 1885 opp. 17
The First Red Cross Warehouse, Washington, D.C. 21
National Red Cross Headquarters in Washington, from 1892 to 1897 22
Some of the First Members of the American National Red Cross 43
A Group of American National Red Cross Members 44
A Group of American National Red Cross Members 55
Suburban Headquarters, American National Red Cross 56
Some Red Cross Decorations Presented to Clara Barton 83
Chronological Historic Tree 84
Clara Barton, taken about 1884 113
“Josh V. Throop” 114
Camp Perry 143
Red Cross Headquarters 144
Johnstown, Pa., before the Flood of 1889 155
Red Cross Hotel, Locust Street, Johnstown, Pa. 156
Red Cross Furniture Room, Johnstown, Pa. 163
Typical Scene after the Flood at Johnstown, Pa., May 30, 1889 164
In Memoriam 174
Typhus Fever Patients in the Russian Famine, 1891–92 181
Count Lyoff Tolstoi 182
Women Cutting Potatoes for Planting—Sea Island Relief, S.C., February, 1894 199
A Windfall for St. Helena 200
Testimonial from Russian Workmen for American Help and Sympathy in the Famine of 1892 217
A Russian Peasant Village 218
Receiving Room for Clothing, S.C. Island Relief, 1893–94 235
South Carolina Sea Island Relief 236
The Island District from Savannah to Beaufort 251
Sick with the Famine Fever 253
Hunger-Stricken 254
Miss Barton’s Room 271
In the Old Schloss of Baden 272
Red Cross Headquarters, Constantinople 281
View from Red Cross Headquarters, Constantinople 282
Turkish Cemetery 282
Chief of the Dersin Kourds and His Three Sub-Chiefs 291
Chief of the Dersin Kourds 292
Decoration of the Royal Order of Melusine 300
Tower of Christ, Constantinople 301
W.W. Peet, Esq. 302
Rev. Henry O. Dwight, D.D. 302
Rev. Joseph K. Greene, D.D. 302
Rev. George Washburn, D.D. 302
Signature of the Sultan 303
Turkish Dispatches 306, 307
Map of the Country traversed by the Red Cross Expeditions carrying American Relief to the Victims of the Armenian Massacres in 1896 309
Interior of Gregorian Church at Oorfa 308
American College Buildings, Aintab 311
American and Armenian Quarters, Harpoot 311
Marash 312
Red Cross Caravan 312
A Bit of Palou 318
Rev. C.F. Gates, D.D., Harpoot 321
Miss Caroline E. Bush, Harpoot 321
First Expedition Embarking on Ferryboat, Euphrates River 321
A Turkish Teskere or Passport 322
Diarbeker, Vilayet of Diarbeker 331
Ruins of an Old Gateway at Farkin 332
Some Methods of Work 340
Salemlik 341
Pera Bridge, Constantinople 341
Turkish Coffee House 342
Hamalls—Showing Manner of Carrying Heavy Burdens 342
Red Cross Expeditions Passing through the Valley of Catch Beard 348
A Turkish Procession in Arabkir 349
Judge Alexander W. Terrell, United States Minister to Constantinople during the Armenian Troubles 351
Armenian and Turkish Decorations 352
Group of Armenian Teachers and Pupils, Harpoot American Missionary College 357
Clara Barton, taken in 1897 358
A Part of the American National Red Cross Fleet in the Spanish-American War of 1898 371
Officers of the Executive Committee American National Red Cross 372
Admiral William T. Sampson 381
Governor-General’s Palace, Havana 382
Entrance to Harbor of Havana—Punta Park 391
John D. Long, Secretary of Navy 392
On San Juan Hill, Santiago 407
Spanish Guerillas 409
A Mounted Advance, Reconnoitring 410
United States Steamship “Oregon” 413
“Almirante Oquendo,” after the Engagement 419
United States Warships before the Entrance to Santiago Harbor 421
“Marie Teresa” after the Engagement 424
Chickamauga Camp 427
Camp Thomas, Headquarters American National Red Cross 428
Fortifications of Manila 440
Red Cross Dining Room for Convalescents, Fort McPherson, Ga. 445
Dining Tent Attached to Red Cross Kitchen, at Camp Hobson, Ga. 446
Panorama of Manila 451
In the Trenches before Santiago 453
A Soldier Funeral 463
McCalla Camp—Early Morning Attack 454
A Typical Cuban Camp 464
A Cuban “Block House,” Garrisoned 481
A View of Eastern Cuba 482
A Part of the Red Cross Corps 499
“I Am with the Wounded.”—Clara Barton’s Cable Message from Havana 500
Wreck of the Battleship “Maine,” Havana Harbor 517
The Prado—Principal Street in Havana 518
Havana Harbor 535
Captain C.D. Sigsbee 536
Street in Cavite 539
Citizens of Jaruco Presenting a Memorial for the Victims of the “Maine” 553
Little Convalescents in Hospital 554
Location of Shore Batteries, Santiago 556
July Fifth in Rifle Pits 558
Scenes on the “State of Texas” and in Siboney 570
The Physicians and Nurses of the Orphanage and Clinic in Havana 571
A Cuban Thatch Hut 581
A Battery of Cuban Artillery 582
A Group of Red Cross Sisters 591
Diploma of Gratitude for Miss Clara Barton from the Red Cross of Spain 592
View of Santiago de Cuba from the Harbor 675
View of Morro Castle, Santiago de Cuba 676
The Burning of Siboney 597
Annie E. Wheeler 609
The Youngest Red Cross Nurse 610
Scenes in Siboney 627
Scenes in Santiago 628
Refugees from Santiago 636
Santiago Refugees at El Caney 639
Establishing Headquarters Ashore 640
Starving in the Plaza 647
Los Fosos 648
Bringing in the Wounded 657
Clearing for a Cross Road 658


To the People 13
Introduction 17
The Red Cross. General History 23
Organization and Methods of Work 27
Occupation in Times of Peace 29
Services in Time of War 30
Neutral Countries in Time of Peace 34
International Correspondence. M. Moynier’s First Letter 36
American Association of the Red Cross. Constitution and Original Incorporation 46–47
First International Conference 48
The Treaty of the Red Cross 57
Governments Adopting the Treaty 58
Address by Clara Barton 60
Action of the United States Government 72
The “Additional Articles” Concerning the Navy 74
International Bulletin, Extract from 77
Accession of the United States to the Treaty and “Additional Articles” 80
Proclamation of President Arthur 85
International Bulletin. Concerning Adhesion of the United States 87
International Committee. Letter Acknowledging Notice of Adhesion by United States 90
International Committee. Fiftieth Circular Announcing Adoption of Treaty by United States 91
The Reincorporation of the American National Red Cross 94
Significance of “Red Cross” in its Relation to Philanthropy. Address by Clara Barton 97
Michigan Forest Fires 107
Mississippi and Ohio River Floods 111
Mississippi and Louisiana Cyclone 112
Ohio River Flood 115
Down the Mississippi 121
“The Little Six” 130

Texas Famine 136
The Mount Vernon Cyclone 145
Yellow Fever Epidemic in Florida 147
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