The Life of the Rev. George Whitefield, Volume 1 (of 2)

The Life of the Rev. George Whitefield, Volume 1 (of 2)

Author:
L. Tyerman
Author:
L. Tyerman
Format:
epub
language:
English

%title插图%num
Author: Tyerman, L. (Luke), 1820?-1889
Whitefield
George
1714-1770
The Life of the Rev. George Whitefield, Volume 1 (of 2)

NEW AND CHEAPER EDITION, UNABRIDGED,
In Three Volumes. Price 7s. 6d. each volume.
ELEGANTLY BOUND IN CLOTH, WITH ENGRAVED PORTRAITS.
THE LIFE AND TIMES
OF THE
REV. JOHN WESLEY, M.A.
BY THE REV. L. TYERMAN.
“It deserves the praise, not only of being the fullest biography of Wesley, but also of being eminently painstaking, veracious, and trustworthy.”—The Edinburgh Review.
“Mr. Tyerman’s volumes constitute by far the most exhaustive, as they are certainly the bulkiest, and from many points of view the most interesting, of the lives of Wesley. Mr. Tyerman’s judgment is usually characterised by great clearness and good sense; his pen seems to be always governed by the desire to be fair and impartial, and for the first time our libraries receive a full and comprehensive memoir of the great religious teacher and ecclesiastical statesman.”—The British Quarterly Review.
“The most copious account of the great evangelist’s life and labours, and the noblest literary tribute to his memory, which has yet been offered to the world.”—Methodist Recorder.
“The narratives of travel through England, Scotland, and Ireland, the records of evangelistic labour, the gradual building up of Wesleyanism as a system, form a history of great interest, and allure the reader on from chapter to chapter, with all the attraction of a romance. We cannot doubt that Mr. Tyerman’s work, so rich and abundant in materials, will henceforth be regarded as the standard life of Wesley.”—The Evangelical Magazine.
“We are thankful for a new and carefully revised edition of this very laborious, interesting, and important work, the value of which is great and obvious. The portraits as now rendered, are very striking and self-evidencing, and of real historical value.”—Wesleyan Methodist Magazine.
“This is the most truthful, full, accurate, and painstaking of all the lives of Wesley.”—The Methodist.


London:
HODDER & STOUGHTON, 27, Paternoster Row, E.C.

Revd. George Whitefield, B.A.
AGED 24
Engraved by J Cochran


THE LIFE
OF THE
REV. GEORGE WHITEFIELD,

B.A., OF PEMBROKE COLLEGE, OXFORD.
BY

REV. L. TYERMAN,

AUTHOR OF
“THE LIFE AND TIMES OF THE REV. SAMUEL WESLEY, M.A., RECTOR OF EPWORTH;”
“THE LIFE AND TIMES OF THE REV. JOHN WESLEY, M.A.;”
AND “THE OXFORD METHODISTS.”
IN TWO VOLUMES.
VOL I.
London:
HODDER AND STOUGHTON,
27, PATERNOSTER ROW, E.C.
———
MDCCCLXXVI.


Hazell Watson, and Viney, Printers, London and Aylesbury.


PREFACE.

Every one who wishes to understand and rightly estimate the Methodist movement of the last century, must, not only read the lives of the two Wesleys, but also, make himself acquainted with the history of Whitefield, and the career of the Methodist contemporaries of the illustrious trio.
John Wesley was Methodism’s founder, and Charles its hymnologist. John Clayton became a man of mark among the High Church clergymen of the Episcopal Communion. James Hervey belonged to the Evangelical section of the Church of England, and, by his writings, influenced not a few of the country’s aristocracy. Benjamin Ingham, by his preaching, left a deep impress on Yorkshire, and other parts of the North of England. John Gambold rendered inestimable service, in moderating and correcting the extravagances of the Moravian Brotherhood. Thomas Broughton gave an impetus to the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, which is felt to the present day. Richard Hutchins, as Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford, helped to mould the character of students, who afterwards rose to great distinction. To each of these distinguished men, Providence assigned a sphere of unusual usefulness. They moved in different orbits, but all were made a blessing to the world.
George Whitefield was pre-eminently the outdoor preacher;—the most popular evangelist of the age;—a roving revivalist,—who, with unequalled eloquence and power, spent above thirty years in testifying to enormous crowds, in Great Britain and America, the gospel of the grace of God. Practically, he belonged to no denomination of Christians, but was the friend of all. His labours, popularity, and success were marvellous, perhaps unparalleled. All churches in England, Wales, Scotland, and the British settlements in America, were permanently benefited by his piety, his example, and the few great truths which he continually preached; whilst the Methodism organised by his friend Wesley—especially in the northern counties of the kingdom—was, by his itinerant services, promoted to a far greater extent than the Methodists have ever yet acknowledged.
The world has a right to know all that can be told of such a man. To say nothing of almost innumerable sketches, at least half a dozen lives of Whitefield have been already published. If the reader asks why I have dared to add to the number of these biographies? I answer, because I possessed a large amount of biographical material which previous biographers had not employed, and much of which seems to have been unknown to them. This is not an empty boast, as will be evident to every one who compares the present work with the lives of Whitefield which have preceded it.
In collecting materials for the “Life and Times of Wesley,” and for the “Oxford Methodists,” I met with much concerning Whitefield; and, since then, I have spared neither time, toil, nor money in making further researches relating to the great evangelist. With the exception of a few instances, all of which are acknowledged, my facts are taken from original sources; and, though to say so may savour of vanity, I believe there is now no information concerning Whitefield, of any public importance, which is not contained in the present volumes.
I have been obliged to employ a few of Whitefield’s letters, which I had previously published in the “Life and Times of Wesley.” This was unavoidable; but the repetition is extremely limited, and is never used except when justice made it necessary.
Whitefield was a Calvinist: I am an Arminian; but the book is not controversial. Whitefield’s sentiments and language have been honestly and truly quoted; and I have not attempted to refute his theological opinions. On such subjects, men, at present, must agree to differ.
The Life is not written with special regard to the interests of any Church whatever,—Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Independent, Baptist, or even Methodist. Whitefield, indeed, called himself a member and minister of the Church of England; but, in reality, he belonged to the Church Catholic. He loved all who loved Jesus Christ, and was always ready to be their fellow-labourer. It is right to add, however, that, as a matter of fact, I have felt bound to shew that the friendship between Whitefield and the Wesleys was much more loving and constant than it has been represented by previous biographers; and that Whitefield’s services to Methodism were more important than the public generally have imagined.
Without the least desire to depreciate any of the lives of Whitefield already published, I may be allowed to say, they are not without errors. Instead, however, of confuting the errors, one by one, as I have met with them, I have, as a rule, not noticed them; but have simply narrated facts, bearing on the respective cases, without comment and without colouring.
The foot-notes are more numerous than I like, and this has prevented my adding to their number by giving all the references for the statements I have made; but, if the truthfulness of any statement be called in question, it will be an easy task to adduce the authority in support of it. For the notices of American ministers and gentlemen, I am chiefly indebted to the “Biographical and Historical Dictionary” of the Rev. William Allen, D.D., President of Bowdoin College, and Member of the Historical Society of Maine, New Hampshire, and New York.
The book is neither artistic nor philosophic. I have merely done my utmost to collect information concerning Whitefield, and have related the facts as clearly, concisely, and honestly as I could. I have also, as far as possible, acted upon the principle of making Whitefield his own biographer. Perhaps, I ought to apologise for the introduction of such lengthened details concerning the first few years of Whitefield’s public life. Apart from being influenced by the fact, that, it was during this eventful period that Whitefield’s character was formed, and his unique mission among men determined, I was wishful to give to the Christian Church, at least, the substance of his Journals—Journals which, unlike those of his friend Wesley, have never been republished, and which, in consequence of their rareness, are almost quite unknown.
The two portraits are copied from original engravings, which Dr. Gillies, Whitefield’s friend and first biographer, pronounced the most exact likenesses of the great preacher ever published.
Whitefield’s power was not in his talents, nor even in his oratory, but in his piety. In some respects, he has had no successors; but in prayer, in faith, in religious experience, in devotedness to God, and in a bold and steadfast declaration of the few great Christian truths which aroused the churches and created Methodism,—he may have many. May Whitefield’s God raise them up, and thrust them out! The Church and the world greatly need them.
L. Tyerman.
Stanhope House, Clapham Park, S.W.
October 16th, 1876.


GENERAL CONTENTS.

WHITEFIELD’S BOYHOOD.
1714 to 1732.
  PAGE
Whitefield’s Genealogy—Autobiography—Birth—Wickedness—St. Mary de Crypt School—Tapster—Religious Feelings—Reformation—Dr. Adams—Sin and Penitence—An Orator 1-13
WHITEFIELD AT COLLEGE.
1732 to 1735.
Oxford Methodists—Pembroke College—Dr. Johnson—Whitefield a Servitor—Law’s ‘Serious Call’—Joins Oxford Methodists—Charles Wesley—Satanic Temptations—Introduced to John Wesley—Two Converts—Whitefield’s Conversion—Religion of Oxford Methodists—The New Birth—Whitefield at Gloucester, etc. 14-34
WHITEFIELD ORDAINED.
May 1735 to June 1736.
Ten Months’ Interval—How spent—Efforts to be useful—Books read—Stage Entertainments—Visiting a Prisoner—Letter to Wesley—Anxiety respecting Ministerial Office—A Dream—Rev. Thomas Cole—Bishop Benson—Sir John Philips—Preparing for Ordination—Ordained—Whitefield’s Autobiography 35-46
COMMENCEMENT OF MINISTRY.
1736.
A grand Day—First Sermon—Personal Appearance—Plain Speaking—Work at Oxford—First Visit to London—Letter to Wesley—Unknown Oxford Methodists—At Dummer—Resolves to go to Georgia—Letter to Charles Wesley 47-63
A YEAR OF PREACHING.
1737.
Whitefield’s Popularity—Pious Clergymen—Dissenting Ministers—Abounding Wickedness—Dr. Isaac Watts—Infidelity—State of Dissenting Churches—National Impiety—Whitefield at Bristol—In London—At Stonehouse—Crowded Congregations—First Publication—New Birth—Rev. John Hutton—Preaching in London Churches—Opposition—Intercourse with Dissenters—First extempore Prayer—Picture taken—Marvellous commotion—Charity Schools—”Lecture Churches”—Charles Wesley—Poem on Whitefield—Weekly Miscellany—”The Oxford Methodists”—Whitefield and the Wesleys—Sermons published—The almost Christian—Terrific Preaching—Original Sin—Profane Swearing—First Farewell Sermon—Ignorant of Justification by Faith only—Preface to “Forms of Prayer” 64-105
FIRST VISIT TO AMERICA.
1738.
Collections for Poor of Georgia—Whitefield’s Cargo—Notable Day—Embarks for Georgia—At Gravesend—At Margate—At Deal—Wesley’s return to England—Eternity of Hell’s Torments—At Gibraltar—Publication of Journal—Sermon on Drunkenness—Incidents of the Voyage—Ill of Fever—Farewell Sermon on Shipboard—America—The Indians—Georgia—Carolina—Emigrants to Georgia—First Services at Savannah—Tomo Chici—Charles Delamotte—Schools opened—Work at Savannah—The Saltzburghers—Visit to Frederica—Dead Infidel—Departure from Savannah—Reasons for return to England—Storms at Sea—Pastoral Epistle—Lands in Ireland—Bishop Burscough—Archbishop Boulter—Arrives in England—At Manchester—The Wesley Brothers—Churches closed—Hostile Publications—Last Week of 1738 106-154
COMMENCEMENT OF OUTDOOR PREACHING.
January to August, 1739.
Lovefeast at Fetter Lane—Conference at Islington—Ordained a Priest—Aristocratic Hearers—The Seward Family—Howell Harris—Scene at St. Margaret’s, Westminster—Susannah Wesley on Whitefield—At Bath—At Bristol—The Poet Savage—Bristol Prison—Chancellor of Bristol Diocese—Letter to Bishop Butler—Religious Societies at Bristol—Begins Outdoor Preaching—First Visit to Wales—Interview with Howell Harris—Rev. Griffith Jones—Kingswood—Whitefield invites Wesley to Bristol—Kingswood School begun—Again in Wales—At Gloucester—Cheltenham—Benjamin Seward—Dean Kinchin—Vice-Chancellor of Oxford—At Islington—Dr. Trapp—Rev. Robert Seagrave—Outdoor Preaching in London—Newspaper Abuse—Contemporaneous Opinions of Whitefield—Reasons for Whitefield’s Popularity—Joseph Humphreys—Joseph Periam—Itinerating—In London—Whitefield’s Journals—Answer to Dr. Trapp—In Kent—Moravians—Scene in a Public House—Specimens of Preaching—The Wesleys become Outdoor Preachers—A Notable Sermon—Another Philippic—William Delamotte—William Seward—Letter to Wesley—Rev. Josiah Tucker—Dr. Skerret—Dr. Byrom—Ebenezer Blackwell—Constables and Magistrates—Whitefield and Wesley at Bristol—Letter to Bishop Benson—Quaker at Thornbury—Mayor of Basingstoke—A Friendly Quaker—Rev. Ralph Erskine—Last Sermons—Whitefield’s Calvinism—Extracts from his Sermons—The Weekly Miscellany—The Craftsman—Rev. William Law and Dr. Warburton—Countess of Hertford—Pamphlets for and against Whitefield—Bishop Gibson’s Pastoral Letter—Whitefield’s Answer—Sermons Published—Extracts from them—Spiritual Pride—Catholic Spirit—Innocent Diversions—Self-righteousness—Entreaties—Whitefield’s Oratory. 155-306
SECOND VISIT TO AMERICA.
August 1739 to March 1741.
Whitefield asks Charles Wesley to be his Successor—Whitefield’s Fellow-Voyagers—Letter to Ebenezer Blackwell—Extracts from other Letters—Letter to the Religious Societies—Arrival in America—Pennsylvania—Philadelphia—The Tennent Family—Whitefield at New York—Return to Philadelphia—Log College—Letter to Ralph Erskine—Gilbert Tennent—Scene in a Church—Leaving Philadelphia—Benjamin Franklin—Journey through Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas—Arrival at Savannah—The Orphan House—Stephens’s Journal—Letters to Ralph Erskine and Gilbert Tennent—Letter to Slave-Owners—Plan of Orphan House—At Charleston—Commissary Garden—Oglethorpe snubs Whitefield—Letter to Wesley—Whitefield’s Courtship—In Philadelphia—Franklin’s Account of Whitefield—Great Work in Philadelphia—New Meeting House—Large Scheme—Letter to Ebenezer Blackwell—Itinerating—Many Adversaries—Moravian Settlement of Nazareth—William Seward—Enormous Labours—Marvellous Movements—Results in Philadelphia—Letter to William Seward—Missionary Advice—Calvinian Controversy—The Orphans Praying—Philip Henry Molther—Letters to Rev. G. Stonehouse, William Delamotte, and Wesley—Whitefield, practically, a Dissenter—Whitefield in Commissary Garden’s Court—Whitefield out of Court—Reformation at Charleston—Election and Final Perseverance—Letter to Bishop of London—Rev. Nathaniel Clap—Boston—Labours in New England—”Washington’s Elm”—Governor Belcher—Letter by Charles Wesley—Sinless Perfection—William Delamotte—A Week’s Work—Whitefield’s Preaching in New England—Gilbert Tennent—Results in Boston—Visit to Jonathan Edwards—Whitefield on New England—”The Querists”—Letters—Whitefield and Wesley—Orphan-house Family—Jonathan Barber—The Savannah Club—Hugh Bryan—Whitefield before Magistrates—His influence in America—Hostile Publications—Nixon’s Prophecy 307-458
WHITEFIELD’S RETURN TO ENGLAND IN 1741.
March to July, 1741.
Letters—Wesley’s Sermon on “Free Grace”—A Trying Time—Trouble at Kingswood—Letter to Wesley—First Methodist Newspaper—Old Friends divided—A Scene at the Foundery—Whitefield in Distress—Good News from America—Whitefield and Charles Wesley—Charles Wesley and the Calvinists—London Tabernacle—Rev. Daniel Rowlands—”Outward Enemies”—Help in Time of Need—Collections for Orphan House—Plan of action—Letter to Students 459-496
FIRST VISIT TO SCOTLAND.
August to November, 1741.
Ebenezer and Ralph Erskine—”The Associate Presbytery”—The Sins of Scotland—The Erskines and the Methodists—Whitefield and the Erskines—Rupture with the Associate Presbytery—”A Warning,” by Rev. Adam Gibb—”Act of the Associate Presbytery”—Aristocratic Friends—Letter to David Erskine—Tour in Scotland—Earl of Leven and Melville—Collections in Scotland—Strange Scene—Anecdotes—Religious Results in Scotland. 497-529
SEVEN MONTHS IN ENGLAND.
November 1741 to June, 1742.
Whitefield’s Marriage—His Wife—Christian Perfection—Good News from America—Racy Letter—The Welsh Evangelists—The Orphan House—Wesley’s Publications—Calvinistic Controversy—Success—Whitefield’s Journals and Letters—Letter to Lady Mary Hamilton—Desire for Christian Union—Scenes in Moorfields—Charles Square, Hoxton—Rev. John Meriton—Man of one Busine 530-561

THE LIFE
OF
The REV. GEORGE WHITEFIELD, B.A.


WHITEFIELD’S BOYHOOD.

1714 TO 1732.

George Whitefield was born in the Bell Inn, Gloucester, on the 16th day of December (O.S.), 1714.
His genealogy, as given by his first biographer, Dr. Gillies, is brief, but not without interest:—

“The Rev. Mr. Samuel Whitefield, great-grandfather of George, was born at Wantage, and was rector of North Ledyard,[1] in Wiltshire. He removed afterwards to Rockhampton, in Gloucestershire. He had five daughters—two of whom were married to clergymen, Mr. Perkins and Mr. Lovingham; and two sons—Samuel, who succeeded his father in the cure of Rockhampton, and died without issue; and Andrew, who was a private gentleman, and lived retired upon his estate. Andrew had fourteen children, of whom Thomas was the eldest.
“Thomas was fi

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