The Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire

Author:
Viscount James Bryce Bryce
Author:
Viscount James Bryce Bryce
Format:
epub
language:
English

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Author: Bryce, James Bryce, Viscount, 1838-1922
Holy Roman Empire — History
The Holy Roman Empire
Transcriber’s Note:
Obvious typographical errors have been corrected. Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation in the original document have been preserved.

THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE.

THE

HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
BY
JAMES BRYCE, D.C.L.
FELLOW OF ORIEL COLLEGE
and
PROFESSOR OF CIVIL LAW IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD
THIRD EDITION REVISED
London
MACMILLAN AND CO.
1871
OXFORD:
By T. Combe, M.A., E. B. Gardner, and E. Pickard Hall,
PRINTERS TO THE UNIVERSITY.

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

The object of this treatise is not so much to give a narrative history of the countries included in the Romano-Germanic Empire—Italy during the middle ages, Germany from the ninth century to the nineteenth—as to describe the Holy Empire itself as an institution or system, the wonderful offspring of a body of beliefs and traditions which have almost wholly passed away from the world. Such a description, however, would not be intelligible without some account of the great events which accompanied the growth and decay of imperial power; and it has therefore appeared best to give the book the form rather of a narrative than of a dissertation; and to combine with an exposition of what may be called the theory of the Empire an outline of the political history of Germany, as well as some notices of the affairs of mediæval Italy. To make the succession of events clearer, a Chronological List of Emperors and Popes has been prefixed[1].
The present edition has been carefully revised and corrected throughout; and a good many additions have been made to both text and notes.
Lincoln’s Inn,
August 11, 1870.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.
Introductory.
CHAPTER II.
The Roman Empire before the Invasion of the Barbarians.
The Empire in the Second Century 5
Obliteration of National distinctions 6
Rise of Christianity 10
Its Alliance with the State 10
Its Influence on the Idea of an Imperial Nationality 13
CHAPTER III.
The Barbarian Invasions.
Relations between the Primitive Germans and the Romans 15
Their Feelings towards Rome and her Empire 16
Belief in its Eternity 20
Extinction by Odoacer of the Western branch of the Empire 26
Theodoric the Ostrogothic King 27
Gradual Dissolution of the Empire 30
Permanence of the Roman Religion and the Roman Law 31
CHAPTER IV.
Restoration of the Empire in the West.
The Franks 34
Italy under Greeks and Lombards 37
The Iconoclastic Schism 38
Alliance of the Popes with the Frankish Kings 39
The Frankish Conquest of Italy 41
Adventures and Plans of Pope Leo III 43
Coronation of Charles the Great 48
CHAPTER V.
Empire and Policy of Charles.
Import of the Coronation at Rome 52
Accounts given in the Annals of the time 53
Question as to the Intentions of Charles 58
Legal Effect of the Coronation 62
Position of Charles towards the Church 64
Towards his German Subjects 67
Towards the other Races of Europe 70
General View of his Character and Policy 72
CHAPTER VI.
Carolingian and Italian Emperors.
Reign of Lewis I 76
Dissolution of the Carolingian Empire 78
Beginnings of the German Kingdom 79
Italian Emperors 80
Otto the Saxon King 84
Coronation of Otto at Rome 87
CHAPTER VII.
Theory of the Mediæval Empire.
The World Monarchy and the World Religion 91
Unity of the Christian Church 94
Influence of the Doctrine of Realism 97
The Popes as heirs to the Roman Monarchy 99
Character of the revived Roman Empire 102
Respective Functions of the Pope and the Emperor 104
Proofs and Illustrations 109
Interpretations of Prophecy 112
Two remarkable Pictures 116
CHAPTER VIII.
The Roman Empire and the German Kingdom.
The German or East Frankish Monarchy 122
Feudality in Germany 123
Reciprocal Influence of the Roman and Teutonic Elements on the Character of the Empire 127
CHAPTER IX.
Saxon and Franconian Emperors.
Adventures of Otto the Great in Rome 134
Trial and Deposition of Pope John XII 135
Position of Otto in Italy 139
His European Policy 140
Comparison of his Empire with the Carolingian 144
Character and Projects of the Emperor Otto III 146
The Emperors Henry II and Conrad II 150
The Emperor Henry III 151
CHAPTER X.
Struggle of the Empire and the Papacy.
Origin and Progress of Papal Power 153
Relations of the Popes with the early Emperors 155
Quarrel of Henry IV and Gregory VII 159
Gregory’s Ideas 160
Concordat of Worms 163
General Results of the Contest 164
CHAPTER XI.
The Emperors in Italy: Frederick Barbarossa.
Frederick and the Papacy 167
Revival of the Study of the Roman Law 172
Arnold of Brescia and the Roman Republicans 174
Frederick’s Struggle with the Lombard Cities 175
His Policy as German King 178
CHAPTER XII.
Imperial Titles and Pretensions.
Territorial Limits of the Empire—Its Claims of Jurisdiction over other Countries 182
  Hungary 183
  Poland 184
  Denmark 184
  France 185
  Sweden 185
  Spain 185
  England 186
  Scotland 187
  Naples and Sicily 188
  Venice 188
  The East 189
Rivalry of the Teutonic and Byzantine Emperors 191
The Four Crowns 193
Origin and Meaning of the title ‘Holy Empire’ 199
CHAPTER XIII.
Fall of the Hohenstaufen.
Reign of Henry VI 205
Contest of Philip and Otto IV 206
Character and Career of the Emperor Frederick II 207
Destruction of Imperial Authority in Italy 211
The Great Interregnum 212
Rudolf of Hapsburg 213
Change in the Character of the Empire 214
Haughty Demeanour of the Popes 217
CHAPTER XIV.
The Germanic Constitution—the Seven Electors.
Germany in the Fourteenth Century 222
Reign of the Emperor Charles IV 225
Origin and History of the System of Election, and of the Electoral Body 225
The Golden Bull 230
Remarks on the Elective Monarchy of Germany 233
Results of Charles IV’s Policy 236
CHAPTER XV.
The Empire as an International Power.
Revival of Learning 240
Beginnings of Political Thought 241
Desire for an International Power 242
Theory of the Emperor’s Functions as Monarch of Europe 244
Illustrations 249
Relations of the Empire and the New Learning 251
The Men of Letters—Petrarch, Dante 254
The Jurists 256
Passion for Antiquity in the Middle Ages: its Causes 258
The Emperor Henry VII in Italy 262
The De Monarchia of Dante 264
CHAPTER XVI.
The City of Rome in the Middle Ages.
Rapid Decline of the City after the Gothic Wars 273
Her Condition in the Dark Ages 274
Republican Revival of the Twelfth Century 276
Character and Ideas of Nicholas Rienzi 278
Social State of Mediæval Rome 280
Visits of the Teutonic Emperors 282
Revolts against them 284
Existing Traces of their Presence in Rome 286
Want of Mediæval, and especially of Gothic Buildings, in Modern Rome 289
Causes of this; Ravages of Enemies and Citizens 291
Modern Restorations 292
Surviving Features of truly Mediæval Architecture—the Bell-towers 294
The Roman Church and the Roman City 296
Rome since the Revolution 299
CHAPTER XVII.
The Renaissance: Change in the Character of the Empire.
Weakness of Germany 302
Loss of Imperial Territories 303
Gradual Change in the Germanic Constitution 307
Beginning of the Predominance of the Hapsburgs 310
The Discovery of America 311
The Renaissance and its Effects on the Empire 311
Projects of Constitutional Reform 313
Changes of Title 316
CHAPTER XVIII.
The Reformation and its Effects upon the Empire.
Accession of Charles V 319
His Attitude towards the Reformation 321
Issue of his Attempts at Coercion 322
Spirit and Essence of the Religious Movement 325
Its Influence on the Doctrine of the Visible Church 327
How far it promoted Civil and Religious Liberty 329
Its Effect upon the Mediæval Theory of the Empire 332
Upon the Position of the Emperor in Europe 333
Dissensions in Germany 334
The Thirty Years’ War 335
CHAPTER XIX.
The Peace of Westphalia: Last Stage in the Decline of the Empire.
Political Import of the Peace of Westphalia 337
Hippolytus a Lapide and his Book 339
Changes in the Germanic Constitution 340
Narrowed Bounds of the Empire 341
Condition of Germany after the Peace 342
The Balance of Power 345
The Hapsburg Empero

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