The Expositor’s Bible: The Book of Daniel

The Expositor’s Bible: The Book of Daniel

Author:
F. W. Farrar
Author:
F. W. Farrar
Format:
epub
language:
English

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Author: Farrar, F. W. (Frederic William), 1831-1903
Bible. Daniel — Commentaries
The Expositor’s Bible: The Book of Daniel


THE EXPOSITOR’S BIBLE.

Crown 8vo, cloth, price 7s. 6d. each vol.

First Series, 1887-8.
Colossians.
By A. Maclaren, D.D.

St. Mark.
By Very Rev. the Dean of Armagh.

Genesis.
By Prof. Marcus Dods, D.D.

1 Samuel.
By Prof. W. G. Blaikie, D.D.

2 Samuel.
By the same Author.

Hebrews.
By Principal T. C. Edwards, D.D.

Second Series, 1888-9.
Galatians.
By Prof. G. G. Findlay, B.A.

The Pastoral Epistles.
By Rev. A. Plummer, D.D.

Isaiah i.-xxxix.
By Prof. G. A. Smith, D.D. Vol. I.

The Book of Revelation.
By Prof. W. Milligan, D.D.

1 Corinthians.
By Prof. Marcus Dods, D.D.

The Epistles of St. John.
By Rt. Rev. W. Alexander, D.D.

Third Series, 1889-90.
Judges and Ruth.
By R. A. Watson, M.A., D.D.

Jeremiah.
By Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A.

Isaiah xl.-lxvi.
By Prof. G. A. Smith, D.D. Vol. II.

St. Matthew.
By Rev. J. Monro Gibson, D.D.

Exodus.
By Very Rev. the Dean of Armagh.

St. Luke.
By Rev. H. Burton, M.A.

Fourth Series, 1890-1.
Ecclesiastes.
By Rev. Samuel Cox, D.D.

St. James and St. Jude.
By Rev. A. Plummer, D.D.

Proverbs.
By Rev. R. F. Horton, D.D.

Leviticus.
By Rev. S. H. Kellogg, D.D.

The Gospel of St. John.
By Prof. M. Dods, D.D. Vol. I.

The Acts of the Apostles.
By Prof. Stokes, D.D. Vol. I.

Fifth Series, 1891-2.
The Psalms.
By A. Maclaren, D.D. Vol. I.

1 and 2 Thessalonians.
By James Denney, D.D.

The Book of Job.
By R. A. Watson, M.A., D.D.

Ephesians.
By Prof. G. G. Findlay, B.A.

The Gospel of St. John,
By Prof. M. Dods, D.D. Vol. II.

The Acts of the Apostles.
By Prof. Stokes, D.D. Vol. II.

Sixth Series, 1892-3.
1 Kings.
By Ven. Archdeacon Farrar.

Philippians.
By Principal Rainy, D.D.

Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther.
By Prof. W. F. Adeney, M.A.

Joshua.
By Prof. W. G. Blaikie, D.D.

The Psalms.
By A. Maclaren, D.D. Vol. II.

The Epistles of St. Peter.
By Prof. Rawson Lumby, D.D.

Seventh Series, 1893-4.
2 Kings.
By Ven. Archdeacon Farrar.

Romans.
By H. C. G. Moule, M.A.

The Books of Chronicles.
By Prof. W. H. Bennett, M.A.

2 Corinthians.
By James Denney, D.D.

Numbers.
By R. A. Watson, M.A., D.D.

The Psalms.
By A. Maclaren, D.D. Vol. III.

Eighth Series, 1895-6.
Daniel.
By Ven. Archdeacon Farrar.

The Book of Jeremiah.
By Prof. W. H. Bennett, M.A.

Deuteronomy.
By Prof. Andrew Harper, B.D.

The Song of Solomon and Lamentations.
By Prof. W. F. Adeney, M.A.

Ezekiel.
By Prof. John Skinner, M.A.

The Minor Prophets.
By Prof. G. A. Smith, D.D. Two Vols.


THE BOOK OF DANIEL

BY

F. W. FARRAR, D.D., F.R.S.

LATE FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE; ARCHDEACON OF
WESTMINSTER

London
HODDER AND STOUGHTON
27, PATERNOSTER ROW

MDCCCXCV

Printed by Hazell, Watson, & Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury.


CONTENTS

PART I
 
INTRODUCTION
 
CHAPTER I
 
  page
 
THE HISTORIC EXISTENCE OF THE PROPHET DANIEL 3
 
 
CHAPTER II
 
GENERAL SURVEY OF THE BOOK 13
 
1. THE LANGUAGE 13
2. UNITY 24
3. GENERAL TONE 27
4. STYLE 29
5. STANDPOINT OF ITS AUTHOR 31
6. MORAL ELEMENT 31
 
 
CHAPTER III
 
PECULIARITIES OF THE HISTORICAL SECTION 39
 
CHAPTER IV
 
GENERAL STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK 63
 
CHAPTER V
 
THE THEOLOGY OF THE BOOK 67
 
CHAPTER VI
 
PECULIARITIES OF THE APOCALYPTIC AND PROPHETIC SECTION OF THE BOOK 71
 
CHAPTER VII
 
INTERNAL EVIDENCE 78
 
CHAPTER VIII
 
EVIDENCE IN FAVOUR OF THE GENUINENESS UNCERTAIN AND INADEQUATE 88
 
CHAPTER IX
 
EXTERNAL EVIDENCE AND RECEPTION INTO THE CANON 98
 
CHAPTER X
 
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 113
 
 
PART II
 
COMMENTARY ON THE HISTORIC SECTION
 
CHAPTER I
 
THE PRELUDE 123
 
CHAPTER II
 
THE DREAM-IMAGE OF RUINED EMPIRES 141
 
CHAPTER III
 
THE IDOL OF GOLD, AND THE FAITHFUL THREE 167
 
CHAPTER IV
 
THE BABYLONIAN CEDAR, AND THE STRICKEN DESPOT 184
 
CHAPTER V
 
THE FIERY INSCRIPTION 203
 
CHAPTER VI
 
STOPPING THE MOUTHS OF LIONS 218
 
 
PART III
 
THE PROPHETIC SECTION OF THE BOOK
 
CHAPTER I
 
VISION OF THE FOUR WILD BEASTS 233
 
CHAPTER II
 
THE RAM AND THE HE-GOAT 252
 
CHAPTER III
 
THE SEVENTY WEEKS 268
 
CHAPTER IV
 
INTRODUCTION TO THE CONCLUDING VISION 292
 
CHAPTER V
 
AN ENIGMATIC PROPHECY PASSING INTO DETAILS OF THE REIGN OF ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES 299
 
CHAPTER VI
 
THE EPILOGUE 319
 
APPENDIX
 
APPROXIMATE CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES 333
 
GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF THE LAGIDÆ, PTOLEMIES, AND SELEUCIDÆ 334

AUTHORITIES CONSULTED

COMMENTARIES AND TREATISES
The chief Rabbinic Commentaries were those of Rashi († 1105); Abn Ezra († 1167); Kimchi († 1240); Abrabanel († 1507).[1]
The chief Patristic Commentary is that by St. Jerome. Fragments are preserved of other Commentaries by Origen, Hippolytus, Ephræm Syrus, Julius Africanus, Theodoret, Athanasius, Basil, Eusebius, Polychronius, etc. (Mai, Script. Vet. Nov. Coll., i.).
The Scholastic Commentary attributed to St. Thomas Aquinas is spurious.
The chief Commentaries of the Reformation period are those by:—
Luther, Auslegung d. Proph. Dan., 1530-46 (Opp. Germ., vi., ed. Walch.)
Œcolampadius, In Dan. libri duo. Basle, 1530.
Melancthon, Comm. in Dan. Wittenburg, 1543.
Calvin, Prælect. in Dan. Geneva, 1563.
Modern Commentaries are numerous; among them we may mention those by:—
Newton, Observations upon the Prophecies. London, 1733.
Bertholdt, Daniel. Erlangen, 1806-8.
Rosenmüller, Scholia. 1832.
Hävernick. 1832 and 1838.
Hengstenberg. 1831.
There are Commentaries by Von Lengerke, 1835; Maurer, 1838; Hitzig, 1850; Ewald, 1867; Kliefoth, 1868; Keil, 1869; Kranichfeld, 1868; Kamphausen, 1868; Meinhold (Kurzgefasster Kommentar), 1889; Auberlen, 1857; Archdeacon Rose and Prof. J. M. Fuller (Speaker’s Commentary), 1876; Rev. H. J. Deane (Bishop Ellicott’s Commentary), 1884; Zöckler (Lange’s Bibelwerk), 1889; A. A. Bevan (Cambridge), 1893; Meinhold, Beiträge, 1888.
The latest Commentary which has appeared is that by Hauptpastor Behrmann, in the Handkommentar z. Alten Testament. Göttingen, 1894.
Discussions in the various Introductions (Einleitungen, etc.) by Bleek, De Wette, Keil, Stähelin, Reuss, Cornely, Dr. S. Davidson, Kleinert, Cornill, König, etc.
LIVES OF DANIEL
Pseudo-Epiphanius, Opera, ii. 243.
H. J. Deane, Daniel (Men of the Bible). 1892.
THERE ARE ARTICLES ON DANIEL IN
Winer’s Realwörterbuch, Second Edition.
Delitzsch, in Herzog’s Real-Encyclopädie.
Graf, in Schenkel’s Bibel-Lexicon, i. 564.
Bishop Westcott, in Dr. W. Smith’s Bible Dictionary, New Edition. 1893.
Hamburger, Real-Encyclopädie, ii., s.v. “Geheimlehre,” p. 265; s.vv. “Daniel,” pp. 223-225; and Heiliges Schriftthum.
TREATISES
Russel Martineau, Theological Review. 1865.
Prof. Margoliouth, The Expositor. April 1890.
Prof. J. M. Fuller, The Expositor, Third Series, vols. i., ii.
T. K. Cheyne, Encyclopædia Britannica, vi. 803.
Prof. Sayce, The Higher Criticism and the Monuments. 1894.
Prof. S. R. Driver, Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament, pp. 458-483. 1891.
Prof. S. Leathes, in Book by Book, pp. 241-251.
C. von Orelli, Alttestamentliche Weissagung, p. 454. Wien, 1882.
Meinhold, Die Geschichtlichen Hagiographen (Strack and Zöckler, Kurzgefasster Kommentar, 1889).
Meinhold, Erklärung des Buches Daniels. 1889.

TREATISES OR DISCUSSIONS BY
Dr. Pusey, Daniel the Prophet. 1864.
T. R. Birks, The Later Visions of Daniel. 1846.
Ellicott, Horæ Apocalypticæ. 1844.
Tregelles, Remarks on the Prophetic Visions of Daniel. 1852.
Hilgenfeld, Die Propheten Ezra u. Daniel. 1863.
Baxmann, Stud. u. Krit., iii. 489 ff. 1863.
Desprez, Daniel. 1865.
Hofmann, Weissagung und Erfüllung, i. 276-316.
Kuenen, Prophets and Prophecy in Israel, E. Tr. 1877.
Ewald, Die Propheten des Alten Bundes, iii. 298. 1868.
Hilgenfeld, Die jüdische Apokalyptic. 1857.
Lenormant, La Divination chez les Chaldeans. 1875.
Fabre d’Envieu, Le livre du Prophète Daniel. 1888.
Hebbelyuck, De auctoritate libr. Danielis. 1887.
Köhler, Bibl. Geschichte. 1893.
INSCRIPTIONS AND MONUMENTS
Babylonian, Persian, and Median inscriptions bearing on the Book of Daniel are given by:—
Schrader, Keilinschriften und d. A. T., E. Tr., 1885-88; and in Records of the Past. See too Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum.
Sayce, The Higher Criticism, pp. 497-537.
These inscriptions have been referred to also by Cornill, Nestle, Nöldeke, Lagarde, etc.
HISTORIES AND OTHER BOOKS
Sketches and fragments of many ancient historians:—
Josephus, Antiquitates Judaicæ, ll. x., xi., xii.
The Books of Maccabees.
Prideaux, Connection of the Old and New Testaments, ed. Oxford. 1828.
Ewald, Gesch. des Volkes Israel. 1843-50.
Grätz, Gesch. der Juden, Second Edition. 1863.
Jost, Gesch. d. Judenthums und seinen Sekten, i. 90-116. Leipzig, 1857.

Herzfeld, Gesch. des Volkes Israel, ii. 416. 1863.
Van Oort, Bible for Young People, E. Tr. 1877.
Kittel, Gesch. d. Hebräer, ii. 1892.
Schürer, Gesch. d. jüdischen Volkes. Leipzig, 1890.
Jahn, Hebrew Commonwealth, E. Tr. 1828.
Droysen, Gesch. d. Hellenismus, ii. 211.
E. Meyer, Gesch. d. Alterthums, i.
SPECIAL TREATISES
Delitzsch, Messianische Weissagangen. Leipzig, 1890.
Riehm, Die Messianische Weissagung. Gotha, 1875.
Knabenbauer, Comment in Daniel. prophet., Lament., et Baruch. 1891.
Kuenen, Religion of Israel, E. Tr. 1874.
Bludau, De Alex. interpe. Danielis indole. 1891.
Nöldeke, D. Alttest. Literatur. 1868.
Fraidl, Exegese d. 70 Wochen Daniels. 1883.
Menken, Die Monarchienbild. 1887.
Kamphausen, Das Buch Daniel in die neuere Geschichtsforschung. Leipzig, 1893.
Lennep, De Zeventig Jaarweken van Daniel. Utrecht, 1888.
Dr. M. Joël, Notizen zum Buche Daniel. Breslau, 1873.
Derenbourg, Les Mots grecs dans le Livre biblique de Daniel. Mélanges Graux, 1888.
Cornill, Die Siebzig Jahrwochen Daniels. 1889.
Wolf, Die Siebzig Wochen Daniels. 1859.
Sanday, Inspiration (Bampton Lectures). 1894.
Sayce, Hibbert Lectures. 1887.
Roszmann, Die Makkabeische Erhebung.
J. F. Hoffmann, Antiochus IV. (Epiphanes). 1873.
Speaker’s Commentary on Tobit, 1, 2 Maccabees, etc. 1888.


PART I
INTRODUCTION

Ἐγὼ μὲν οὖν περὶ τούτων ὡς εὗρον καὶ ἀνέγνων, οὕτως ἔγραψα· εἰ δέ τις ἄλλως δοξάζειν βουλήσεται περὶ αὐτῶν ἀνέγκλητον ἐχέτω τὴν ἐτερογνωμοσύνην.—Josephus, Antt., X. ii. 7.


[Pg 2]
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CHAPTER I

THE HISTORIC EXISTENCE OF THE PROPHET DANIEL

“Trothe is the hiest thinge a man may kepe.”—Chaucer.

We propose in the following pages to examine the Book of the Prophet Daniel by the same general methods which have been adopted in other volumes of the Expositor’s Bible. It may well happen that the conclusions adopted as regards its origin and its place in the Sacred Volume will not command the assent of all our readers. On the other hand, we may feel a reasonable confidence that, even if some are unable to accept the views at which we have arrived, and which we have here endeavoured to present with fairness, they will still read them with interest, as opinions which have been calmly and conscientiously formed, and to which the writer has been led by strong conviction.
All Christians will acknowledg

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