Author: Munsell, Joel, 1808-1880
The Every Day Book of History and Chronology
Embracing the Anniversaries of Memorable Persons and Events in Every Period and State of the World, from the Creation to the Present Time
|Index to Names of Persons.|
|Index to Battles, Sieges and Other Military Operations.|
The object of this work, as will be seen, is to bring together the great events of each day of the year, in all ages, as far as their dates can be ascertained, and to arrange them chronologically. It has been necessary to observe brevity in its compilation, in order to reduce it within a proper compass. Hence notices of the most eminent men are often confined to two or three lines, while individuals of less note have occasionally received more attention, on account of the absence of ready reference to them in books.
The dates are in accordance, it is believed, with the best authorities. Great care has been taken to make them so, and nothing has been inserted for which there was not at least some authority. Occasionally authors have been found to disagree in days, months, and even years, and it has been necessary to reconcile, as well as possible, such discrepancies. Much of this confusion arises from the change in the calendar; some authors following the old, others the new style, without informing us which they adhere to. The protestant countries did not all adopt the new style till 1777, about two centuries after the catholic authorities had reformed the calendar. The Russians still use the Julian era, and are now consequently twelve days behind the true time. With these difficulties in the way, no ordinary vigilance ensures an entire freedom from error in a work like this. The dates here, however, are made to conform to the new style as far as practicable. In some cases where different dates have been given, and it has been found impossible to determine the true one, the article has been inserted under different days with cross references. Repetitions have crept in however, which could only be discovered in preparing the index. Errors of this kind are perpetuated by a succession of authors following a wrong date, and are exceedingly difficult to detect, or when suspected, not easily traced to their origin. When dates have been taken from computations of time other than the Christian era, it should be understood that the corresponding day has been made to conform to our own era, and consequently perfect accuracy can not be claimed for them.
It has been said that geography and chronology are the eyes of history; in aiding to promote one of these sciences, the reader will not fail to discover how great and varied is the amount of facts brought together, rendering the work of use to persons of every age and calling. A reference to the index will show more clearly the extent of the work.
EVERY DAY BOOK
HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY.
154 B. C. It was fixed that the Roman consuls should always enter upon their office on this day, and the years were named after them. On this occasion they went in solemn procession to the Capitol to sacrifice to Jupiter Capitolinus; after which the senate held a solemn session. Those who had discharged the office of consul enjoyed the pre-eminence of rank over the other senators. They were annually elected by the people till the time of Tiberius, who ordered that they should be chosen by the senate. The last consul after whom the year was named, was Barsilius, in the year 541, in the reign of Justinianus.
38. B. C. The Spanish era, or era of the Cæsars, commenced, being the year following the conquest of Spain by Augustus. It was much used in Africa, Spain and the south of France; but was abolished by one kingdom after another during the fourteenth century, and by Portugal 1555.
404. Telemachus, or St. Almachus, whose story is the foundation of Fenelon’s famed work Telemaque, suffered martyrdom at Rome.
1109. The Festival of Fools was instituted at Paris, and continued prosperous for 240 years. This, with the Lords of Misrule, and the Abbots of Unreason, was doubtless designed to ridicule the Druidic saturnalia.
1308. William Tell, the Swiss patriot, associated himself on this day with a band of his countrymen against the tyranny of their oppressors.
1349. Edward III, king of England, defeated the French before Calais with great slaughter.
1504. Birthday of Casper Cruciger, an extensive and multifarious scholar, and a follower of Luther. He died 1548.
1515. Louis XII of France, surnamed the father of the people, died. Notwithstanding the faults of his education, which had been purposely neglected, he became a wise and politic monarch, who had the welfare and improvement of his country in mind. Though extensively engaged in wars, he avoided burdening the people with taxes—was economical, just and magnanimous.
1513. Juan Diaz de Solis, coasting the southern continent, discovered the mouth of a river on this day, which in consequence he called Rio Janeiro.
1516. Juan Diaz de Solis again entered the Rio de Solis which he had discovered three years previous. In attempting a descent on the country he was slain by the natives, who in sight of the ship cut his body in pieces, and roasted and devoured it. He was reputed the ablest navigator in the world.
1523. Knights of Malta driven from the island of Rhodes by the Turks.
1537. James V of Scotland married Magdalen, daughter of Francis I of France.
1617. Henry Goltzius, a distinguished Dutch painter and engraver, died. His father was a painter on glass, and gave his son instructions in the art; but it was his own genius and application that raised him to the rank he ultimately held among the best artists of the time.
1618. Charter of the first New Netherland company expired by its own limitation.
1618. Birthday of Bartholomew Esteban Murillo, the greatest of all the Spanish painters. He was employed by the churches and convents of Seville a great number of years, which were enriched by the masterly productions of his pencil, and procured for himself an independent fortune. Having been invited to Cadiz, he there executed his grand picture of St. Catharine; but just as he was about to finish it he was dreadfully wounded on the scaffolding, and died at Seville, 1682.
1630. Thomas Hobson, the celebrated carrier of Cambridge, England, died. One of the most general proverbial expressions in England originated with him. He let to students and others horses, and his practice was to secure equal portions of rest as well as work for each horse. Hence when applied to for any, none but that which had its due proportion of rest could be let. “This or none” was the answer. Hence the phrase “Hobson’s choice; this or none.”
1644. Michob Ader, calling himself the Wandering Jew, appeared at Paris, where he created an extraordinary sensation among all ranks. He pretended to have lived sixteen hundred years, and that he had traveled through all regions of the world. He was visited by the literati of the city, and no one could accost him in a language that he was ignorant of; he was also familiar with the history of persons and events from the time of Christ, so that he was never confounded by intricate or cross-questions; but replied readily and without embarrassment. The learned looked upon him as a counterfeit, or madman, yet they took their leave of him bewildered and astonished.
1651. Charles II crowned king of Scotland at Scone.
1661. A parliament met in Scotland.
1700. The Russians began their new year.
1715. William Wycherley died, aged 81, an eminent English dramatic writer and comic poet.
1727. Claude Adrian Helvetius died; a celebrated Dutch physician, who, having obtained celebrity by introducing the use of ipecacuanha in dysentery, was made inspector general of military hospitals, and died at London.
1729. Great fog in London, persons lost their way in St. James’ park, and many fell into the canal.
1730. Samuel Sewall, chief justice of the supreme court of Massachusetts died.
1731. Edward Cave printed the first number of the well known Gentleman’s Magazine.
1748. Birthday of Godfrey Augustus Burger, a celebrated German poet, and the writer of that whimsical satire, Munchausen’s Travels.
1748. John Bernouilli, a Swiss mathematician, died. He was born at Basil in Switzerland, and educated for a merchant, but afterwards studied medicine, and finally devoted his attention to mathematics with great success. He was the contemporary of Leibnitz and De L’Hopital, and of Newton. His labors in the science were indefatigable, and his works contain an immense mass of discovery. But the details of his private life exhibit an unusual degree of acerbity and disingenuousness.
1752. The new style commenced this day in England by act of parliament. (See March 25.)
1757. Calcutta surrendered to the British under Admiral Watson, Colonel Clive and Captain Coote.
1761. Great hurricane in the East Indies, destroying a part of the British fleet; of the crews of three of the ships lost but 14 were saved out of 1100.
1776. Norfolk Burnt. Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia, having abandoned the town and retired on board his ships, became distressed for provisions; and on the arrival of the Liverpool man of war, the inhabitants refusing to supply his majesty’s ships, the place was reduced to ashes. The provincials themselves destroyed the houses and plantations near the water, to deprive the ships of every resource of supply.
1781. Revolt of the Pennsylvania line at Morristown, N. J. They had enlisted for three years, and that term having expired they wished to be discharged.
1787. Arthur Middleton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was a native of South Carolina, born 1743, and educated in England; and at the age of twenty-two made the tour of Europe. On the breaking out of the war he engaged warmly on the side of the colonies. In 1779 he distinguished himself in the defence of Charleston against the British, who afterwards ravaged his plantation and rifled his mansion, by which he suffered an immense loss of property; and in the following year he was taken prisoner. On the termination of the contest he returned to his native seat, and spent the remainder of his life in elegant and philosophical ease—a model of private wealth and public virtue; a firm patriot and an enlightened philanthropist.
1793. A beginning was made upon the Pennsylvania state canal, at Conewago falls; seventeen rocks being blasted—one for each stockholder of the canal company.
1794. The French convention abolished flogging in the army and navy and substituted other punishments more congenial with the spirit of the times.
1794. Thomas Paine and Anacharsis Cloots arrested by order of Robespierre and sent to prison in Paris.
1797. Zemaun Shah made his triumphal entry into Lahore, the capital of the Sikhs, where he formed an army of 100,000 men with a view of marching upon Delhi.
1798. Athenæum at Liverpool was opened.
1799. The French drove the king of Naples from his capital and forced him to take refuge on board of a British man of war, in which he sailed to Palermo.
1801. Union of Great Britain with Ireland.
1801. Ceres discovered by Piazzi, the astronomer, at Palermo.
1804. The numerous army which France had sent against the negroes of Hayti being compelled by disasters to fly to St. Domingo, the general and chiefs of the Haytian army entered into a solemn compact, in the name of the people of Hayti; renouncing all dependence on France, and appointed Dessalines, the oldest general, governor for life, with very extensive powers.
1806. The French republican calendar abolished, and the Christian era and reformed calendar restored.
1806. The elector of Wurtemberg proclaimed king of Swabia, and the elector of Bavaria king of Bavaria.
1807. Curacoa surrendered to the British under Sir Charles Brisbane.
1810. There had died in Philadelphia during the year ending this day 2004 persons; the population including the Liberties was about 100,000.
1810. Married at East Haddam, Conn., nine young ladies, being all that were marriageable at that time in the town.
1811. Tortosa in Valencia surrendered to the French under Suchet, who took nearly 8000 prisoners, 177 cannons, and a large quantity of provisions.
1811. Hamburgh formally annexed to France.
1811. Spanish cortes forbid the people obeying any act of Ferdinand XII, while a prisoner of Bonaparte.
1813. Jean Mourtrie, a Frenchman, died at the age of 115. He was a tilemaker, and continued his occupation to the age of 109. He was a pattern of honor and integrity; his gaiety made the young fond of his society; and his mild and even temper and kind disposition gained him the love of all who knew him.
1814. Great fog in London, which had commenced on the 27th of December, was now at its greatest density, extending seventy miles from the metropolis. Many persons lost their lives by falling into the river, and canals, and other places.
1814. The allied army entered France.
1814. American dragoons under Capt. Stone advanced on Buffalo, accompanied by Lieuts. Riddle, Totman and Frazer, of the United States regiment; the militia retiring, Totman was killed, and Riddle narrowly escaped being captured.
1815. William Creech, bookseller and twice lord provost of Edinburgh, died. He was a spirited writer.
1815. The British under Gen. Packenham opened a battery of two 18 pounders on the Americans at New Orleans; it was silenced the same day. The Americans had a boat loaded with military stores sunk; 34 men killed and wounded, and two caissons blown up by rockets. Gen. Thomas joined Gen. Jackson same day with 660 men from Baton Rouge.
1816. William Hillhouse died, aged 88; for more than 50 years a member of the council and legislature of Connecticut.
1817. Martin Henry Klaproth, a German chemist and philosopher, died. He was born at Wernigerode 1743 and followed the profession of an apothecary till 1788, when he became chemist to the Academy of Sciences at Berlin.
1817. The new Bank of the United States opened at Carpenter’s hall, Philadelphia; Wm. Jones president, Jonathan Smith cashier.
1818. William Harrod, an eccentric bookseller in Leicestershire, died.
1823. The French language abolished in the law courts of Holland, where it had long been in use, and was prevalent in society.
1825. Great Britain acknowledged the independence of the South American republics.
1835. Charles Lamb died. He was the author of the beautiful stories of Elia, which are universally admired. His exquisite humor, fancy, feeling and wit, have given an endurable character to his essays. The bettering of the condition of mankind was his great aim, and he was in the esteem of every philanthropist.
1835. First daily paper in Buffalo, New York.
1837. Samuel Hulse died at Chelsea Hospital, England, of which he had been governor since 1820, aged 90. He entered the British army in the year 1761, and at the time of his death had been upwards of three quarters of a century in the military service, and was then field marshal.
1837. Saphet in the Holy Land nearly destroyed by an earthquake. It is said that this and a subsequent shock were both predicted by a Walachian almanac maker.
1848. Girard college opened with appropriate ceremonies at Philadelphia.
1848. The state of Maryland repudiated repudiation, and resumed payment of interest on her debt at the Chesapeake bank, Baltimore.
1852. Frederick Philips Robinson, an American officer, died, aged 89; he had been scarcely less than 75 years in the military ranks.
1854. Great fire at Constantinople destroyed 400 houses; among which were those of the Greek patriarch, and the patriarch of Jerusalem.
17. Titus Livius died at Padua. His history of Rome, to which he devoted twenty years, rendered him so celebrated, that a Spaniard is said to have gone from Cadiz to Rome for the purpose merely of seeing him. His history was written in 140 books, of which only 35 are extant. Five of these were discovered at Worms 1731, and some fragments are said to have been since found at Herculaneum. Few particulars of his life are known, but his fame was great even while he lived, and his history has made him immortal.
17. Publius Ovidus Naso, the Roman poet, died in exile at Tomos (a town on the inhospitable coast of the Black sea), aged 60. He exhibited an unconquerable predilection for poetry, and the ease and the enjoyments of life, which his fortune placed within his power. He traveled in Greece and Asia which added to his accomplishments; his works were adapted to the public taste, and he was esteemed by the learned: Horace and Virgil were his friends, and he was a welcome visitor at the court of Augustus. Until his fiftieth year he appears to have lived almost solely for poetry and pleasure. He might have hoped to pass the remaining years of his life in peace, under the shadow of his laurels, but he was suddenly banished by Augustus, for some unknown cause. His Metamorphoses, and Art of Love are often republished in our language. He painted nature with a masterly hand, and his genius imparted elegance to vulgarity; but impurity defiles the sweetness of his numbers, and his finest productions are sullied with licentiousness.
1547. Conspiracy of Genoa, headed by John Lewis Fiesco; his being drowned in the night, occasioned the failure of the scheme, in the very moment of success.
1604. The Jesuits reinstated in France.
1731. A reprieve sent to a prisoner at Newgate on condition he would suffer Mr. Chiselden to make an experiment on the tympanum of his ear. The experiment was never performed.
1741. John Barber, printer to the city of London, and the first printer that rose to the rank of mayor, died.
1757. Calcutta retaken by the English and permitted to be fortified by the subah.
1758. The Whitefield methodists observed this day in thanksgiving for the victories of the king of Prussia in favor of England.
1759. The French surprised and captured Frankfort on the Maine.
1766. James Edward Francis Stuart, the Pretender, died. He was the eldest son of James II, born at London 1688. He was five months old when his father was d