George Whitefield: A Biography, with special reference to his labors in America

George Whitefield: A Biography, with special reference to his labors in America

Author:
Joseph Belcher
Author:
Joseph Belcher
Format:
epub
language:
English

%title插图%num
Author: Belcher, Joseph, 1794-1859
Whitefield
George
1714-1770
George Whitefield: A Biography, with special reference to his labors in America



George Whitefield.


GEORGE WHITEFIELD:
A BIOGRAPHY,

WITH
SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HIS LABORS
IN AMERICA.
COMPILED

BY JOSEPH BELCHER, D. D.,

AUTHOR OF THE LIFE OF REV. DR. CAREY, MISSIONARY TO INDIA,
ETC., ETC.

PUBLISHED BY THE
AMERICAN TRACT SOCIETY,
150 NASSAU-STREET, NEW YORK.


CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.
MORAL STATE OF GREAT BRITAIN IN THE EARLY PART OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY—WHITEFIELD, FROM HIS BIRTH TO HIS FIRST SERMON.
1714-1736.
Low state of religion in Great Britain and its dependencies when Whitefield appeared—His birth in Gloucester—Hooper—Raikes—Whitefield’s early life—His entrance at the university of Oxford—Becomes connected with the Wesleys and other Methodists—Illness and mental trials—Relief—Preparation for the ministry—Return to Gloucester—Ordination—First sermon 13
CHAPTER II.
WHITEFIELD’S SUCCESS AS A PREACHER IN ENGLAND—FIRST VISIT TO AMERICA.
1736-1738.
Whitefield’s return to Oxford—Usefulness there—Visits London—Great popularity—Georgia—His anxiety as to duty—Invited to Georgia by the Wesleys—Preparation and departure—Preaching and excitement at Deal—Labors and success on board—Arrival and labors at Gibraltar—Interesting incidents on the voyage—Sickness and recovery—His reception at Savannah—Visit to an Indian king—Origin of the Orphan asylum—Visit to Frederica—Return to Savannah—Visit to Charleston—Treatment by Garden—Embarkation for Europe—Stormy voyage—Arrival in Limerick—Journey to London—Meeting with the trustees of Georgia—Ordination as priest—Return to London—First extempore prayer—First idea of open-air preaching 40
CHAPTER III.
OPEN-AIR PREACHING IN ENGLAND AND WALES—ERECTION OF THE TABERNACLE IN LONDON.
1738, 1739.
Whitefield’s visit to Bristol—New opposition—Interviews with the chancellor of the diocese—Preaching at Kingswood—Large congregations—Preaching at Bristol—Labors in Wales with Howel Harris—Gloucester—Old Mr. Cole—Return to London—Conflict with Bishop Warburton and others—Moorfields—Kennington Common—Blackheath—Anecdotes—Erection of the Tabernacle—New Tabernacle—Certificate—Visit to Norwich—Conversion of Robert Robinson—Preaching at the West End of London—Liberality of Whitefield’s congregations—Attendance of the nobility on Whitefield’s ministry—Architecture of Tabernacle and Tottenham Court road chapel 71
CHAPTER IV.
WHITEFIELD’S SECOND VISIT TO AMERICA.
1739, 1740.
Joseph Periam’s release by Whitefield from Bedlam—Whitefield’s arrival at Philadelphia—Preaches to vast crowds in the open air—Testimony of Dr. Franklin and others—Account of the Log College—William Tennent, Sen.—Whitefield’s own account of his preaching at Philadelphia—Subsequent discovery of the conversion of Dr. Rodgers—Whitefield’s first visit to New York—Description of him by one of his hearers—Sermons in New Jersey—Old Tennent church—Places of preaching at New York—Address to sailors—Letter to Pemberton—Interview with Gilbert Tennent—Some of Whitefield’s sermons printed—Departure from Philadelphia—Sermons on his journey to Savannah—Arrival and reception at Charleston—Departure for Savannah—Dangers of the way—State of things in Georgia—Whitefield revisits Charleston—Controversy with Commissary Garden—Lays the foundation-stone of the Orphan house—Sermon by Smith on the character of Whitefield 97
CHAPTER V.
CONTINUATION OF HIS SECOND VISIT TO AMERICA.
1740.
Feebleness of Whitefield’s health—Again visits Charleston, Philadelphia, etc.—Extent of his former success—Extracts from Seward’s journal—Extracts from newspapers—Whitefield’s letter to England—His correspondence on marriage—Birth and death of his son—His funeral sermon for his wife—Franklin and others on Whitefield’s eloquence—Anecdote—Extract from the New England Weekly Journal—Return to Savannah—Manner of his reception—Activity at Savannah—Again visits Charleston—Cited into the Commissary’s court—Various examinations—Whitefield’s appeal to the Court of Chancery—Interview with the Commissary—Usefulness at Charleston—Sails for New England 129
CHAPTER VI.
WHITEFIELD’S FIRST VISIT TO NEW ENGLAND.
SEPTEMBER TO NOVEMBER, 1740.
State of religion in New England—Testimony of Prince—Dr. I. Mather—Dr. Jonathan Edwards’ success—Prevalence of prayer—Whitefield’s arrival and labors at Newport—Interview with Clap—Honeyman—Letter from Barber—Journey to Boston—Interview with the Commissary and the clergy—Preaches at Brattle-street, Old South church, New North, Common, Roxbury, Old North, Cambridge, First church—Interview with Governor Belcher—Roxbury—Hollis-street—Old South church—Brattle-street—Marblehead—Salem—Ipswich—Newbury—Hampton—Portsmouth—York—Return to Boston—Frequent preaching—Invitation to children—Interesting conversation with a child—Anecdote of juvenile usefulness—Remarks on an unconverted ministry—Whitefield’s character of Boston—Preaches at Concord, Sudbury, Marlborough, Worcester, Leicester, Brookfield, Cold Spring, Hadley, Northampton—Revival there—Whitefield’s opinion of Mr. Edwards and family—Important interview—Preaching at East Windsor, Westfield, Springfield, Suffield—Opinion of Mr. and Mrs. Edwards, Sen.—Relinquishment of appointments to preach—Visit to New Haven—Interview with Principal Clap—Departure from New England—Whitefield’s character of it—Conversion of Mr. Emerson—Prince’s account of Whitefield’s visit—Dr. Baron Stow on its results—Anecdote, 148
CHAPTER VII.
LABORS IN NEW YORK AND THE MIDDLE AND SOUTHERN STATES.
1740, 1741.
Whitefield’s arrival and labors at New York, Staten Island, and Newark—Mr. Burr—Meeting with Gilbert Tennent—Visit to Baskinridge—Tennent’s preaching in Cross’ barn—Whitefield preaches in the new house at Philadelphia—Franklin’s advice to Gilbert Tennent—Remarkable instances of conversion—Success in Philadelphia—Apostrophe in a sermon—Visit to Gloucester, Greenwich, Cohansey, Salem, Newcastle, Fagg’s Manor, Bohemia—Sails from Reedy island to Charleston—Arrival at Bethesda—Remarkable escape from death—Prosecution at Charleston—Preaching—Letters from Boston—Departure for England—Separation from Messrs. Wesley—Difficulties in London—Triumph—Howel Harris 196
CHAPTER VIII.
FIRST AND SECOND VISITS TO SCOTLAND—LABORS IN ENGLAND AND WALES.
1741-1744.
Scheme of comprehension—Account of Rev. John Cennick—Voyage to Scotland—Letter to Rodgers—Visit to Erskine—Preaching in Edinburgh—Labors at Glasgow—His sermons printed—Return to England—Letter from McCulloch—Renewed glance at Edinburgh—Public attention deeply riveted—Execution of a convict—Improvement of the event in a sermon—Conversion of a mimic—A drunken sergeant—Miss Hunter—Marquis of Lothian—Conduct of Rev. Mr. Ogilvie—Second visit to Scotland—Cambuslang—Kilmarnock—Glance at subsequent visits—Orphan-house park, Edinburgh—Glasgow—Increasing reputation—Extracts from letters—Anecdotes—Visit to Wales—Letters from America—Visit to Gloucester, Strand, Tewkesbury—Encouraging news from America—Success in London—Awakening at the Tabernacle—Visit to Gloucester and its neighborhood—South Wales—Return to London—Bristol—Exeter—Mr. Saunders—Conversion of Thomas Olivers—Birmingham—Kidderminster—Health—Assizes at Gloucester—Plymouth—Deliverance from assassination—Conversion of Mr. Tanner—Visits to the poor—Anecdote—Embarkation for America 222
CHAPTER IX.
WHITEFIELD’S SECOND VISIT TO NEW ENGLAND.
1744, 1745.
Incidents of the voyage from England—Prayer heard—General alarm—Whitefield’s illness—Arrival at York—Threatening sickness—Rev. Mr. Moody—Preaching at York and Portsmouth—Apparent danger of death—Departure for Boston—Constant preaching there—Chelsea—Malden—Prince’s account of his preaching and conduct—Objections made to his administration of the Lord’s supper—Changes in New England—Opposition to Whitefield in Connecticut, New Haven, Massachusetts, Harvard College—Large meeting in his favor at Boston—Number of signatures to the testimony—Progress of revival—Proceedings of Harvard College—Whitefield’s defence—Subsequent act of the College—Expositions at Boston, Ipswich, Portland, Exeter—Expedition against Cape Breton—Sherburne’s request—Sermon to the soldiers—Refusal of chaplaincy—Conversion of a colored trumpeter—Of a noted scoffer—Anecdote of Whitefield and Dr. Hopkins 254
CHAPTER X.
LABORS IN THE MIDDLE AND SOUTHERN STATES—THE BERMUDAS.
1745-1748.
Whitefield’s preaching in New York, New Jersey, Philadelphia—Liberal offer declined—Usefulness of his printed sermons in Virginia—Preaches at Hanover—Isaac Oliver—Visit to Bethesda—His account of the Orphan-house—His character as given by the New York Post-boy—Public testimony as to Whitefield’s integrity—Preaching tour in Maryland—Visit to Charleston—Success of his preaching in Maryland—Visits New York, Newport, Portsmouth, Boston—Return to Philadelphia—Bohemia—Journey to North Carolina—Embarkation for the Bermudas—His progress and labors—Honored by the governor and others—Usefulness among the negroes—Summary of his proceedings in the Bermudas—Kindness of the people there—Voyage to England—His labors on the voyage—Arrival at Deal 277
CHAPTER XI.
LABORS IN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND—CHAPLAIN TO LADY HUNTINGDON.
1748, 1749.
Triumphs and trials in London—Becomes chaplain to the Countess of Huntingdon—Complimented by the great—Bolingbroke and Rev. Mr. Church—Rev. James Hervey—Honors conferred on Whitefield—Falsehoods of Horace Walpole—Charged with vulgarism—Defence—Third visit to Scotland—Return to London—Visit to the west of England—Conversions in Gloucestershire—Tour in Cornwall—Brilliant assemblies in London—Excursion to Exeter and Plymouth—Rev. Andrew Kinsman—Return to London—Decline of health and visit to Portsmouth and Wales—Arrival of Mrs. Whitefield from the Bermudas—Visit to the north of England—Popularity there—Intensely interesting services—Rev. W. Grimshawe—Solemn instances of mortality—Return to London for the winter—Usefulness 301
CHAPTER XII.
LABORS IN GREAT BRITAIN—FOURTH VISIT TO AMERICA—NEW TABERNACLE IN LONDON, AND TABERNACLE AT BRISTOL.
1750-1754.
Efforts made by Whitefield for Bethesda—His ardent love for America—Love to his mother—His mourning for sin—Dr. Doddridge—London ministers—Interview with Doddridge and Hervey—Earthquake in London—Bishop Horne’s sermon—Universal consternation—Preaching of Whitefield at midnight in Hyde park—Whitefield and his friends at Court—Journey to Bristol—Taunton—Rev. R. Darracott—Preaching at Rotherham, Bolton, Ulverston—Conversion of Mr. Thorpe—Edinburgh and other places in Scotland—Testimony of Hume—Second visit to Ireland—Opposition on Oxmantown Green—Usefulness in Ireland—Rev. John Edwards—Fourth voyage to America—Interview with Lady Huntingdon—Moravians—Lady Huntingdon’s testimony—Letter to Dr. Franklin—Itinerant labors—Revision of manuscripts—Erection of the new Tabernacle—Again itinerates—Dedication of the Tabernacle at Bristol—Somersetshire—Condolence on Mr. Wesley’s sickness—Visit of Messrs. Davies and Tennent to England—Whitefield’s fifth voyage to America 323
CHAPTER XIII.
FIFTH VISIT TO AMERICA—RENEWED LABORS IN GREAT BRITAIN—TOTTENHAM COURT-ROAD CHAPEL.
1754-1763.
Whitefield’s arrival and proceedings in Lisbon—Lands at Beaufort, S. C.—Voyage to New York—New Jersey—Interview with William Tennent—Accompanies President Burr to New England—Popularity at Boston—Correspondence with Habersham—Portsmouth—Rhode Island—Franklin’s narrative of a drummer and Whitefield—Powerful address in Virginia—Pleasant interview at Charleston—Embarks for England—Arrival at New Haven—His feelings on arriving in England—Labors at the Tabernacle—Love for America—Journey to Bristol, Gloucestershire, Norwich—Returns to London—Reproof from Grimshawe—Serious illness—Earthquake at Lisbon—Tottenham Court-road Chapel—Conversion of Mr. Crane—Publication of “A short Address”—Personal character of Whitefield’s preaching—His servant—Shuter—Violent persecution—Interference of government—Journey to Bristol—Lines on a chair—Journey to Kent, north of England, Scotland—Meeting at Leeds—Interview with the new governor of Georgia—Prosperity of Tottenham Court—Journey to Scotland—Ireland—Returns to London—Ill health—Anecdote—Another visit to Scotland—Death of friends—Debts of Bethesda paid—Renewed visit to Scotland—Visit to Brighton—Foote’s mimicry—Activity—Sails on his sixth voyage to America 350
CHAPTER XIV.
SIXTH VISIT AND LABORS IN AMERICA—RENEWED LABORS IN GREAT BRITAIN.
1763-1767.
Improvement of Whitefield’s health—Friends in Virginia—Proceedings in Philadelphia—New Jersey—A collegiate hearer—New York—Letter from Boston Gazette—Opposition of Seabury—Arrival and preaching at Boston—Public thanks to him—Leaves Boston—New Haven—New York—New Jersey College—Philadelphia—Virginia—South Carolina—Bethesda—Proceedings of the government—Prosperity of the Orphan-house—Thoughts of returning to England—Still detained in America—Sails for England—Arrival there—Dedicates a church at Bath—Returns to London—Sickness—Interest in American affairs—Rev. Samson Occum—Labors with Mr. Whitaker in England—Success—Whitefield’s journey to Bristol—Success in London—Mr. Joss becomes his colleague—Rev. Rowland Hill—Whitefield again visits Bath and Bristol—Mr. Fletcher’s sermons in London—Preface to Bunyan’s works—Whitefield in Wales and Gloucestershire—North of England—Disappointed in obtaining a charter for Bethesda 375
CHAPTER XV.
HIS LAST LABORS IN GREAT BRITAIN—COLLEGE AT TREVECCA—EARL OF BUCHAN—TUNBRIDGE WELLS.
1767-1769.
Letter to Keen—Whitefield preaches before the Book Society—Change in his style and manner of preaching—Expulsion of six students from Oxford—Whitefield’s letter to the Vice-chancellor—Usefulness of the expelled young men—Letter to a gentleman at Wisbeach—To Captain Scott—To Hon. and Rev. Walter Shirley—Death and funeral services of the Earl of Buchan—Whitefield’s last visit to Edinburgh—Death of Mrs. Whitefield—Whitefield’s own sickness—Dedication of the college at Trevecca—Improvement of his health—Letter to Mr. Shirley—Letter of Dr. Franklin to Whitefield—Whitefield’s remarks on it—Dedication of church at Tunbridge Wells—Contemplated voyage to America—His last sermon—Account of Rev. George Burder—Messrs. Wilson—Embarkation of Whitefield—Detained in the Downs—Ordination and preaching at Deal—Anecdote of Dr. Gibbons—Clears the Channel—Arrival at Charleston 400
CHAPTER XVI.
SEVENTH VISIT AND LAST LABORS IN AMERICA—DEATH.
1769, 1770.
Arrival at Bethesda—Its prosperity—Honors paid him by the legislature—Letter at Charleston—Plan of the proposed college—Visits Philadelphia—Preaches at Burlington, New York, Albany—Attends an execution—Visit to Sharon—Conversion of Mr. Randall—Visit to Boston—Letters to Messrs. Wright and Keen—Letter in Pennsylvania Journal—Arrival at Exeter—Anecdote—Vast congregation—Delivers his last sermon—Account of it—His solemnly interesting appearance—Rodgers’ Journal—Journey of Whitefield to Newburyport—Alarming illness—Death—His remarks to Dr. Finley—Arrangements for the funeral—Its solemn services—Cenotaph 423
CHAPTER XVII.
TESTIMONIES AND FACTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF WHITEFIELD’S CHARACTER.
Funeral sermon by Dr. Cooper—Respect shown to his memory in Georgia—Whitefield county—Sermon by Rev. Mr. Ellington—Arrival of the news in London—Sermon by Rev. J. Wesley—Rev. John Newton—Anecdote—Reply of Bacon the sculptor—Visits to his tomb—Old man in Ipswich—Whitefield’s indifference to his reputation and ease—Institution at Georgia—Laborious life—Extraordinary voice—Use of common facts—Anecdotes—His solemnity of manner—Testimony of an American preacher—Of Winter—Anecdotes—Sermons in storms—Appearance in the pulpit—Character of his printed sermons—His devotional spirit—Visiting the sick—Intercourse with society—Neatness 445
CHAPTER XVIII.
CHARACTER OF WHITEFIELD AS A PREACHER—CENTENNIAL COMMEMORATIONS.
Prominence given by him to the truths of salvation—His ardent glow of feeling—His direct address—His habitual dependence on the Spirit of God—Dealt with men as immortal beings—Dr. Hamilton’s estimate of Whitefield—Comparison of Whitefield and Wesley—Centennial commemorations—Hymns by Mr. Conder—Usefulness—Bristol Tabernacle—Mr. James’ sermon—Character of Whitefield’s ministry, by Mr. Glanville 479

PREFACE.

The excellent Matthew Henry has very truly said, “There are remains of great and good men, which, like Elijah’s mantle, ought to be gathered up and preserved by the survivors—their sayings, their writings, their examples; that as their works follow them in the reward of them, they may stay behind in the benefit of them.”
Influenced by this and kindred sentiments, the compiler of this volume has devoted no small labor to gather from every source to which he could gain access, whatever appeared to him important to be known respecting the most distinguished uninspired preacher perhaps of any age or country. Whatever may be the faults of the work, to use the language of the Rev. Dr. Campbell, one of the present pastors of Whitefield’s churches in London, in reference to a short sketch he had himself prepared of our great evangelist, “It will serve to bring him and his apostolic labors before

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George Whitefield: A Biography, with special reference to his labors in America
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