Argentina, Legend and History

Argentina, Legend and History

Author:
Marcos Sastre
Author:
Marcos Sastre
Format:
epub
language:
English

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Author: Blasco Ibáñez, Vicente, 1867-1928
Spanish language — Readers
Argentina
Argentina — History
Argentina, Legend and History


Every attempt has been made to replicate the original as printed.
Some typographical errors have been corrected;
a list follows the text.
The footnotes follow the text.
CONTENTS
LIST OF MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS
VOCABULARY: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Ll, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, Y, Z
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T H E   H I S P A N I C   S E R I E S

UNDER THE EDITORSHIP OF

John D. Fitz-Gerald, Ph.D.

PROFESSOR OF SPANISH, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
MEMBER OF THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA
CORRESPONDIENTE DE LAS REALES ACADEMIAS
ESPAÑOLA, DE LA HISTORIA DE MADRID, Y DE
BUENAS LETRAS DE BARCELONA

ARGENTINA
LEGEND AND HISTORY

José de San Martín
(Blasco Ibáñez, Argentina y sus grandezas)

ARGENTINA

LEGEND AND HISTORY

READINGS SELECTED AND EDITED
BY
GARIBALDI G. B. LAGUARDIA, A.M.
AND
CINCINATO G. B. LAGUARDIA, A.B.
OF THE UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY

BENJ. H. SANBORN & CO.
CHICAGO       NEW YORK       BOSTON
 
Copyright, 1919,
By BENJ. H. SANBORN & CO.

Norwood Press
J. S. Cushing Co.—Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.
 
AI
NOSTRI GENITORI
 

PREFACE

IN this book, the editors offer reading material which will give the student some idea of the history of Argentina, of her great men, of her development since the dawn of independence, and of her wonderful possibilities, as shown in Blasco Ibáñez’s Con Rumbo a la Esperanza.
The choice of material has necessarily been restricted, but within that limited field, the editors have selected what was representative and typical and best adapted to the purpose in view.
The book has been arranged to suit the needs of third-year high school work, or second-year college Spanish. It was taken for granted that the student would be familiar with the underlying principles of Spanish grammar before taking up this book; and yet, grammatical explanations have been given wherever they were deemed necessary, and translations of difficult passages have been suggested. The Introduction gives a brief historical sketch of Argentina, which will furnish a background on which to locate the specific events related in the book. Considerable detailed information concerning the authors represented and the institutions and customs of Argentina and her people will be found in the Biographical Notes and in the annotations to the selections.
If the book succeeds in arousing a sympathetic interest in the struggles for Argentine independence and her subsequent progress, the editors will feel more than repaid. Upon that sympathetic interest must rest the ever growing Pan-American ideal to bring both Americas closer to each other.
The editors gratefully acknowledge their obligation to the Pan-American Union, Washington, D.C., to The Hispanic Society of America, New York, and to Doubleday, Page & Co., New York, for their courtesy in permitting the reprinting of the article on the Congreso de Tucumán, taken from the July, 1916, number of La Revista del Mundo. To their colleague, Mr. Julian Moreno-Lacalle, the editors are sincerely grateful for valuable suggestions and for many kindnesses, which have made the work easier to accomplish. Thanks also are due to Professor F. B. Luquiens (of Yale), Messrs. H. K. Stone (of Grinnell College, Iowa), O. d’Amato (of the University of Illinois), and J. Pittaro (of the Stuyvesant High School, New York).
Garibaldi G. B. Laguardia
Cincinato G. B. Laguardia
United States Naval Academy
Annapolis, Maryland

      1919

CONTENTS

PAGE
Dedication v
Preface vii
Introduction xv
Biographical Notes l
Himno Nacional Argentino 1
Vicente López y Planes
El Gaucho Argentino 7
Vicente Fidel López
Originalidad y Caracteres Argentinos 22
Domingo F. Sarmiento
I. El Rastreador 36
II. El Baquiano 40
III. El Gaucho Malo 46
IV. El Cantor 49
Asociación 56
Domingo F. Sarmiento
    La Pulpería 56
Leyendas del País de la Selva 74
C. O. Bunge (Según Ricardo Rojas)
I. El País de la Selva, Sus Leyendas y Trovadores 74
II. Zupay 78
III. El Kacuy 80
La Leyenda de Santos Vega 86
C. O. Bunge
La Tradición de Lucía Miranda 91
C. O. Bunge
El Lucero del Manantial: Episodic de la Dictadura de don Juan Manuel Rosas 98
Manuela Gorriti
I. María 98
II. Un Sueño 100
III. El Encuentro 101
IV. Amor y Agravio 102
V. Dieciséis Años Después 103
VI. Madre e Hijo 108
VII. En la Sala de Representantes 110
VIII. El Terrible Drama 112
IX. Conclusión 114
Los 3000 Pesos de Dorrego 116
C. O. Bunge
Cumplir la Consigna 120
C. O. Bunge (Según Juan M. Espora)
La Lealtad de San Martín 122
C. O. Bunge (Según Juan M. Espora)
Lavalle en Río Bamba 125
Pedro Lacasa
El Ombú 129
Marcos Sastre
En la Cordillera 133
Juan María Gutiérrez
La Naturaleza Sudamericana: De Valparaíso a Buenos Aires 141
Juan María Gutiérrez
Liniers y la Reconquista de Buenos Aires 148
C. O. Bunge (Según P. Groussac)
I. Los Preparativos y la Marcha hacia Buenos Aires 148
II. La Reconquista 153
El Negro Falucho 161
Bartolomé Mitre
La Abdicación de San Martín 166
Bartolomé Mitre
El General Belgrano 177
Bartolomé Mitre
El General Las Heras 184
Bartolomé Mitre
Don Juan Martín de Pueyrredón 190
V. F. López
Mariano Moreno 195
Juan María Gutiérrez
Güemes 202
Bartolomé Mitre
Facundo Quiroga 209
Domingo F. Sarmiento
Esteban Echeverría 217
Pedro Goyena
El Congreso de Tucumán: 1816-1916 222
Ernesto Nelson
Buenos Aires en 1815 243
Vicente Fidel López
Buenos Aires: Las Tiendas Antiguas 251
Lucio V. López
Con Rumbo a la Esperanza (from La Argentina y sus grandezas) 255
Vicente Blasco Ibáñez
El Ministro Drago al Ministro García Mérou 292
Luis M. Drago
Vocabulary: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Ll, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, Y, Z 307

LIST OF MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

José de San Martín Frontispiece
Republica Argentina (mapa) xiv
El 25 de Mayo de 1810 xxii
Belgrano en Tucumán xxix
La Bahía de Montevideo en 1825 xxxii
El Paso de los Andes xxxv
Los Treinta y Tres Orientales xliii
Choza de Gaucho en la Pampa 11
Vista de un Pago de Gauchos 15
Domingo F. Sarmiento 23
Estancia en las Pampas 43
Una Pulpería en el Campo 60
Gaucho en el Acto de Arrojar un Tiro de Bolas 65
Ricardo Rojas, Joven Escritor Argentino 77
Una Payada de Contrapunto 87
Carlos Octavio Bunge 92
Juan Lavalle 126
Una Vista de la Pampa 129
Un Ombú 130
Sud-América (mapa) facing 141
Santiago Antonio de Liniers 150
Paul Groussac 154
Buenos Aires y Sus Contornos (mapa) 156
Avance de los Ingleses sobre Buenos Aires 158
Estatua al Negro Falucho en Buenos Aires 163
Bartolomé Mitre 167
Estatua Ecuestre del General San Martín, Plaza San Martín, Buenos Aires 169
San Martín y Bolívar en Guayaquil 174
Manuel Belgrano 179
Juan Gregorio de Las Heras 187
Juan Martín de Pueyrredón 191
Mariano Moreno 197
Martín Güemes 204
Juan Facundo Quiroga 211
Casa donde se Reunió el Congreso de Tucumán 224
Ernesto Nelson 232
Vista del Puerto de Buenos Aires 265
Vicente Blasco Ibáñez 273
Buenos Aires: Los Elevadores 285
Buenos Aires: la Avenida de Mayo 291
Luis M. Drago 295

INTRODUCTION

THE material of which this textbook is composed must be so new to the vast majority of both teachers and students of Spanish in this country, that the need of an introduction has been deemed imperative by the editors.
Americans have of late been growing more and more alive to the urgent necessity of gaining a better knowledge of the vast continent and the peoples to the south of them. Argentina, as the most prosperous of the South American republics, has claimed no small share of this newly awakened interest. It is hoped that this book will aid in promoting and strengthening this interest, and that this introduction, in its turn, will be of aid in elucidating and furnishing a proper background for the material herein presented.
If we wish to understand Argentina, we must begin first of all by familiarizing ourselves with one pivotal sentiment that has permeated and controlled every aspect of Argentine life and development since colonial days. This sentiment is an exalted and haughty patriotism, so intense, indeed, that the tone with which an Argentine says “Soy argentino”, is no whit less assertive and proud than that in which citizens of ancient Rome were wont to say “Civis Romanus sum”.
Whatever the origin of this sentiment, the evidences of it are irrefutable. Argentina has to-day about nine million inhabitants: of these, fully two thirds are of recent foreign origin, mainly Italian and Spanish, and to a much smaller extent, English, French, and German. Argentina, in other words, has relatively a much larger population of recent foreign extraction than the United States. Nevertheless, the hyphen does not exist in Argentina; and the terms Italo-Argentine, Hispano-Argentine, Franco-Argentine, etc., are entirely unknown. The jealous and uncompromising patriotism of the Argentine makes hyphenated national designations impossible. If we turn from the evidence of purely popular sentiment to the more sober and more controlled evidence of literature, we find the same thing. Take away from the literature of Argentina the theme of patriotism, and you have taken away its most distinctive and its greatest life-giving element. It has been said, and justly, that the Italian literature of the nineteenth century centered entirely about the theme of Italian unification, voicing during the first half of the century the aspirations of her great men for a united Italy, and during the second half intoning the pæan of joy at the accomplishment of those aspirations. The same may be said of Argentine literature. The names of the great leaders of her immortal Revolution, both against the mother country and later against the internal caudillo tyrants—the most important of whom was Rosas—and the deeds that they performed, recur again and again through the pages of her men of letters, whatever be the form of literature they engage in, narrative, dramatic, or poetic.
It is for this reason that for the proper understanding of the Argentine temperament, as evidenced by her literature as well as by her popular ideals, the knowledge of her political history, beginning with the time of the English invasions in 1806 (when the latent nationalism of the then Viceroyalty of the Plata first manif

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