A Thousand Years of Jewish History / From the days of Alexander the Great to the Moslem Conquest of Spain

A Thousand Years of Jewish History / From the days of Alexander the Great to the Moslem Conquest of Spain

Author:
Maurice H. Harris
Author:
Maurice H. Harris
Format:
epub
language:
English

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Author: Harris, Maurice H. (Maurice Henry), 1859-1930
Jews — History
A Thousand Years of Jewish History
From the days of Alexander the Great to the Moslem Conquest of Spain

Preface to the Revised Edition

The dual purpose of the revision of this work has been simplification and amplification.

The language has been recast in parts and there have been added sub-titles within each chapter, cross-references and an index. Ideas such as “Religion as law,” the Logos of Philo and the development of Messianism have been made as simple as these subjects admit of.

In seeking illustrations to vivify the narrative it is unfortunate that so little is available. Ah! if we had pictures of Hillel, of Akiba the Martyr, of Judah the Saint, of the Jamnia Academy, of the splendor of the Babylonian Exilarch. But this very absence of pictures is in itself a bit of Jewish history.

This new edition contains quotations from the literature of the periods covered, from the Apocrypha, Philo, Josephus and the Mishna. Three chapters have been added, two on “Stories and Sayings of the Sages of the Talmud” and one on “Rabbi Judah and his times.” Other chapters have been placed in more logical sequence. Both the Chronological Tables and the Notes are fuller. A new feature has been introduced in a “theme for discussion” at the close of each chapter that may be found helpful to study circles and Chautauqua societies. This has also been introduced in the recently issued “Modern Jewish History.”

The author expresses his grateful indebtedness to Dr. David de Sola Pool for a most careful reading of the manuscript and for many corrections and suggestions; also to Mr. Philip Cowen for the aid rendered in collecting the illustrations. The author has availed himself of writings that have appeared on this epoch since the edition of 1904. He hopes he has succeeded in producing a more readable book.


Contents

Preface to revised edition v.
Introduction vi.
Themes for Discussion xiii.
Maps and Illustrations xii.
Chronological Tables xii.
Index 311
BOOK I. JUDEA A VASSAL STATE.
Chapter I. Under Persian Sway.

Political Silence — Religious activity — The Bible Canon. Notes: Persian influence — Judaism as law — Bible books.

17-25
Chapter II. Greek and Jew.

Alexander the Great — Judea part of Greco-Egypt — Joseph the Satrap. Note: Greek and Jew.

26-32
Chapter III. Judea Fights for its Faith.

The High Priest’s office sold — Religious Persecution — Judas Maccabeus — Feast of Hanukkah — The Book of Daniel. Note: Immortality.

33-44
Chapter IV. Judea Fights for its Independence.

Death of Judas — Jonathan — Death of Eleazar — Independence

45-51
Chapter V. The Apocrypha.

I. Esdras — II. Esdras — Tobit — Judith — Additions to Esther — Wisdom Literature: Wisdom of Solomon — Ecclesiasticus — Baruch — Song of the Three Holy Children — History of Susanna — Bel and the Dragon — Prayer of Manasses — I. Maccabees — II. Maccabees

52-66
Chapter VI. In the Diaspora.

Egypt — The Septuagint — Onias and his temple

67-71
BOOK II. JUDEA INDEPENDENT.

Chapter VII. Pharisees and Sadducees.

Simon — Hyrcanus I. — Pharisees and Sadducees — Essenes

77-84
Chapter VIII. A Royal House Again.

Aristobulus — Alexander Janneus — Queen Salome Alexandra — The “Pairs.”

85-90
Chapter IX. Rival Claimants for the Throne.

Aristobolus II. — Prayer of Onias — Pompey takes Jerusalem.

91-94
Chapter X. Judea Under Roman Suzerainty.

Growth of Rome — From First Triumvirate to Empire — Herod enters on the scene — The last Hasmonean ruler.

95-101
Chapter XI. Herod.

Herod as man — Herod as builder — Herod as father. Note: Edom, type of Rome.

102-110
Chapter XII. Hillel.

Hillel as moralist — Hillel as legislator — Last days — Shammai. Note: Law and equity.

111-117
Chapter XIII. Herod’s Successors.

Antipas and John the Baptist — The last Herodian — Judea part of a Roman province.

117-122
BOOK III. JUDEA UNDER ROME.

Chapter XIV. Pilate the Procurator.

Procurators in general — Pilate in particular — Proselytes.

123-126
Chapter XV. Jesus of Nazareth.

The Messianic hope — Jesus the man — Jesus the Messiah — Christianity — Teachings of Jesus. Note: The Crucifixion.

127-135
Chapter XVI. The Alexandrian School.

Jew and Greek — Jewish Missionaries.

136-140
Chapter XVII. Philo-Judeus.

His Bible Commentary — His philosophy — The Logos — His Ethics.

141-146
Chapter XVIII. A Jewish King Once More.

The mad emperor Caligula — Agrippa’s youth — Agrippa the king — Agrippa slain — Agrippa II.

147-152
Chapter XIX. The Last Procurators.

The Zealots — The Sicarii.

153-156
Chapter XX. Judea’s War With Rome.

Revolution — A peace party — Josephus.

157-160
Chapter XXI. The Siege.

The North succumbs — Rival parties in Jerusalem.

161-167
Chapter XXII. The Fall of Jerusalem.

Masada, the last fortress — The remnant again.

168-171
Chapter XXIII. Josephus and his Works.

His early life — Josephus vs. Jeremiah — His “History of the Jews” — “Contra Apion.” Note: Josephus and Christianity.

172-180
BOOK IV. THE TALMUDIC ERA.
Chapter XXIV. Jochanan Ben Zakkai.

The Academy at Jamnia — Prayer replaces sacrifice — Halacha and Agada.

183-189
Chapter XXV. The Palestinian Academies.

R. Gamaliel — R. Joshua — Ordination of rabbis — The Prayer Book.

190-196
Chapter XXVI. Judaism and the Church.

The development of Christianity — Old and New Testaments — Gnostics. Note: Jewish Scripture and Church doctrine.

197-200
Chapter XXVII. Rome’s Regime After Judea’s Overthrow.

Proselytes again — Revolt against Trajan — Hadrian’s “Promise.”

201-205
Chapter XXVIII. Akiba.

Love and Law — Akiba’s Ethics.

206-210
Chapter XXIX. Last Struggle for Liberty.

Bar Cochba — General Severus — Martyrdom.

211-216
Chapter XXX. Judah “the Saint” and His Times.

Mair and Beruria — Judah ha-Nasi — Other famous teachers.

217-221
Chapter XXXI. The Mishna.

Written and Oral Law — Quotations — Amoraim.

222-228
Chapter XXXII. Babylonia and its Schools.

The Resh Galutha — Rab and Samuel — Babylonian Schools. Note: Patriotism and Judaism.

229-238
Chapter XXXIII. Christianity the State Church of Rome.

Rome’s decline — Why Christianity appealed to Romans — Judaism and Christianity contrasted — The Calendar.

239-244
Chapter XXXIV. Division of the Roman Empire.

Julian — Two Roman Empires — Goths and Vandals — Persecution of the Jews.

245-249
Chapter XXXV. The Talmud.

The Gemara — The contents — Talmudic Literature — Saboräim. Note: Law of the Talmud.

250-255
Chapter XXXVI. Sayings and Stories of the Sages of the Talmud.

God — Providence — Prayer — Righteousness — Study of the Law — Education in general — Parents and children — Woman.

256-263
Chapter XXXVII. Sayings and Stories of the Sages. (continued.)

Work — Truth — Justice and Honesty — Kindness — Charity — Humility and Patience — Sin — Repentance — Death and immortality — Wit and Humor.

264-279
BOOK V. SHEM AND JAPHETH.
Chapter XXXVIII. Beginning of the Jewish Middle Ages.

In the Byzantine Empire — Laws of Justinian — Jews again involved in war — Rome’s successors — Italy — The Popes — Slavery and trade.

281-287
Chapter XXXIX. In the Spanish Peninsula.

Gaul and the Franks — Vicissitudes in Spain.

288-292
Chapter XL. Arabia.

The land and the people — Arabian Jews — Jussef the Proselyte — Samuel the chivalrous.

293-298
Chapter XLI. Mohammed.

The Hegira.

299-304
Chapter XLII. Islam and the Jews.

Christianity and Islam — The Koran or the Sword — The Spread of Islam — Fall of Visigothic Spain.

304-310

List of Illustrations

  PAGE
Jerusalem besieged by Titus Frontispiece
Antiochus Epiphanes 42
Half Shekel, Simon Maccabeus 50
Shekel, Simon Maccabeus 51
Goat-skin water bottles 66
The Temple of Jerusalem 74
Ground plan of Temple Area 75
Coin of Johanan the High Priest 84
Coin of the Time of Alexandra 87
The Pool of Siloam 90
Julius Caesar 97
Coin of Antigonus on his accession 101
Emperor Augustus 105
Coin of Agrippa I. 148
Coin of Agrippa II. 152
Battlement on a house-top 160
Emperor Titus 164
Coin of the Reign of Titus 166
The Golden Candlestick (on Arch of Titus depicting carrying the spoil of Judea) 169
Flavius Josephus 173
The Arch of Titus, raised to commemorate the overthrow of Judea 180
Brass Coin struck in Rome during reign of Vespasian, indicating Judea’s overthrow 189
Brass Coin of Nerva, marking the withdrawal of certain abuses in connection with the Jewish Tax 205
Coin of the Second Revolt of Bar Cochba 216
————
Map, Palestine Before the War, 66 B.C.E. Front
Map, The Diaspora Back

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES.

  PAGE
Under Persian Sway 17
Greek and Jew 26
Greco-Syria and the Maccabees 33, 45
The Hasmonean House 73
Emperors and Procurators 120, 152
Rome and Jewry after Judea’s overthrow 201
Emperors and Rabbis 229
The Talmud’s compilation and Rome’s fall 250
In Christian Europe and Moslem Arabia 281

Themes for Discussion

CHAPTER PAGE
I. Discuss the relations between Judaism as law and Mendelssohn’s statement that “Judaism is not a revealed religion but a revealed legislation.” 25
II. What was the significance of the defeat of Persia by Greece for civilization in general and for the Jew in particular? 30
IV. Had the Hasmoneans the right to assume the office of High Priest? 51
V. Compare the treatment of wisdom in Proverbs (viii) and in Ecclesiasticus. 66
VI. Are there traces of Greek philosophy in the Septuagint? 71
VII. Compare modern with ancient parties in Israel. 84
VIII. Contrast the Wood Festival of ancient Judea with Arbor Day in modern America. 90
X. Single out great events in Israel influenced by, and influencing the Jews. 101
XI. Did Herod succeed or did he fail? 110
XII. Is it possible, as Hillel said, to evolve the whole law from the Golden Rule? 116
XIV. Does official Judaism discourage conversion? Why did the Jews oppose a census on religious groun

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